Economic Policies in Sudan

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UNMISS in Juba and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen agree to cooperate on assessing the developments in South Sudan:

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and UNMISS (United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan) have agreed to cooperate in assessing the situation with regard of peace, security and development in South Sudan. UNMISS has a mandate since 9 July 2011 to consolidate peace and security and to establish conditions for development (see the link to UNMISS: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmiss/). Professor Karl Wohlmuth and a representative from UNMISS have recently agreed in Bremen to exchange information and to assess the situation in South Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth works since 1978 on development in Sudan, researching on economic development and the political economy of Sudan. Since 2005 the professor researches on the implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the North and the South, and since 2011 he works about the modalities of a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see the link: Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG and the project Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011). Recently a documentary film by ARTE has shown the tremendous difficulties to establish the foundations for a viable state of South Sudan (see the link to the film by ARTE: http://www.arte.tv/guide/de/045315-000/suedsudan-geburt-eines-staates#details-photos, and see also the Documentary Film "South Sudan - Birth of a State"). Any progress will depend on a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as the border region between the two countries is so important for peace, security, growth  and development in both countries.

 

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Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Sudan and South Sudan - The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation

This is the title of Unit Three for the forthcoming volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title "Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa". The Editors of the Yearbook took the event of South Sudan's Independence on July 9, 2011 as an obligation to plan for a whole Unit on the Sudan and the South Sudan for the new volume of the Yearbook. As the separation of the South is of tremendous importance not only for the two countries Sudan and South Sudan but also for the whole continent of Africa, the Editors have invited leading researchers from the University of Khartoum, the University of Kassala (both in the North) and the University of Juba (in the South) to write on the macroeconomic policies and the macroeconomic policy formation processes of the two countries. Dr. Dirk Hansohm, Macroeconomic Advisory Services Nairobi, Kenya, currently working as a consultant in Khartoum, a former member and collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) at the University of Bremen, also has contributed to the Unit Three. While the essay on the Sudan considers the macroeconomic consequences of the secession of the South, based on an analysis of the major economic problems and shocks of Sudan since the 1970s, the essay on the South Sudan concentrates on establishing fiscal planning and building fiscal management as cornerstones of macroeconomic stability. Macroeconomic aspects of the two countries are considered by all the authors with having a longer run view in mind (see the Synopsis of the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). 

The Unit Three is also a contribution to the understanding of the economics of post-conflict countries in Africa. It came out from the two papers that despite of quite different endowments and initial conditions the two countries have to pursue similar economic policies so as to strengthen the weak economic policy institutions, to redirect production and exports towards diversification, to lay the foundations for macroeconomic stability and fiscal decentralization, and to establish basic social policy systems. As well the huge defense sector in both countries has to be scaled down because of the fiscal burden and the diversion of resources from productive activities, especially agriculture and manufacturing. The abundant natural resources in the two countries could be used more fully by appropriate strategies. New economic strategies and macroeconomic policies have to be based fully on a medium to long-term planning approach, and growth and employment diagnostics approaches are recommended to enhance local development. Professor Karl Wohlmuth introduced the Unit with an essay on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan and the Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation. Five elements of a new macroeconomic policy framework were outlined for the two countries, and the contours of a Border States Development Programme (BSDP) were discussed. Such a programme should guide the  development of the now eleven states in the North and in the South along the international border between Sudan and South Sudan. This programme would allow it to develop the abundant natural resources in the area to the benefit of the people in both countries.

 

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Wissenschaftliche Kooperation der Universität Bremen mit Afrika: Das Sudanprojekt der Universität Bremen am IWIM

Im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe "Vom Sudan nach Namibia", organisiert vom Rektorat und dem International Office der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit Institutionen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Bremen, hielt Professor Karl Wohlmuth einen Vortrag über "Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?. Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, eröffnete den Vortragsabend. Der Professor ging zunächst auf die Phasen des Sudanprojektes an der Universität Bremen (Sudanforschungsgruppe Bremen) seit den 70er Jahren bis zur Gegenwart ein und analysierte dann die Ursachen der Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan. Auf Möglichkeiten und Chancen einer zukünftigen Kooperation der beiden Länder wurde eingegangen. 

Im Vortrag wurden fünf Themen behandelt: Erstens, die Konflikte im Sudan: Ursachen, Einflussfaktoren, Perioden; zweitens, das sudanesische Wachstumsmodell und die Konflikte; drittens, die Geographie, Intensität und Dynamik der Konflikte im Sudan/Süd-Sudan; viertens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine grundlegend neue Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik; und fünftens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine strategische ökonomische Kooperation zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Eine lebhafte Diskussion über die Thesen des Bremer Sudanforschers schloss sich an den Vortrag an. Die Präsentation wird auf Grund des bekundeten Interesses nun einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht (Link: PDF Präsentation). Ein Draft Paper zum Vortrag und Aufsätze des Referenten zu den behandelten Themen liegen vor (vgl. Publikationen von Karl Wohlmuth). Über diese Themen wird im Rahmen der Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen in den kommenden Jahren weiter gearbeitet (Link: Sudanforschungsgruppe).

 

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Vom Sudan nach Namibia: Eine Vortragsreihe der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit zwei Ausstellungen

Die Universität Bremen dokumentiert ihre Zusammenarbeit mit afrikanischen universitären Partnern im Rahmen von Ausstellungen und einer Vortragsreihe vom 30. April – 28. Mai 2013 im DGB-Haus am Hauptbahnhof (vgl. den Flyer zu der Veranstaltung: http://www.uni-bremen.de/fileadmin/user_upload/international/Aktuelles/IO_Vom_Sudan_nach_Namibia_Flyer_20130318_RZ.pdf ). 

Sowohl die Kooperation von Wissenschaftlern der Universität Bremen mit Namibia als auch jene mit dem Sudan währt nun schon über 35 Jahre. In der Zwischenzeit sind zahlreiche weitere Kooperationen mit Afrika dazugekommen und prägen Lehre und Forschung der Exzellenzuniversität.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird am 28. Mai 2013 zum Thema "Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation" einen Vortrag halten (vgl. Synopse unter: http://www.uni-bremen.de/international/profil-international/aktuelles-und-berichte/aktuelles/vom-sudan-nach-namibia.html). Berichtet wird über die Projekte der Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sudan und über die aktuellen Forschungen zu den Entwicklungen nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Süd-Sudan vom 9. Juli 2011 (vgl. dazu ausführlich: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/EconomicPoliciesInSudan.htm und http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-sudan.htm ).

Die Veranstaltung wird am 30. April 2013 von Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, und von S. E. Neville Gertze, Botschafter der Republik Namibia, feierlich eröffnet. Prof. Dr. Manfred Hinz hält den Eröffnungsvortrag.

 

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Neuer Forschungsbericht über die ökonomische Kooperation von Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 ist erschienen

In dem neuen Forschungsbericht Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die zukünftigen Kooperationsmöglichkeiten und Kooperationsnotwendigkeiten zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Der Forschungsbericht basiert auf der Keynote Lecture, die  Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei der International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 an der Universität Bonn gehalten hat. Das dort vorgelegte Paper wurde für die SERG-Reihe überarbeitet und aktualisiert (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm ).

 

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New Research Report on Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Paper Number 40 is now published

In the new research report Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 Professor Karl Wohlmuth analyses the future of economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. The report is based on the Keynote Lecture at the International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 at the University of Bonn. The Report is an extension and update of the former paper presented at the conference (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm ).

 

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Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern/Social Policy in Developing Countries:

Nicht nur im "Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt", sondern auch im Band "Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern" ist der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth mit einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in den Republiken Sudan und Süd-Sudan vertreten. Die besondere Bedeutung dieses Bandes ergibt sich aus der Tatsache, dass die Sozialpolitik zu einem wichtigen Prüfkriterium für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, insbesondere auch der Europäischen Union, geworden ist (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth).

Der zweite European Report on Development (ERD) für das Jahr 2010 hat den Titel "Social protection for inclusive development - a new perspective in EU co-operation with Africa" (vgl. Link: http://erd.eui.eu/erd-2010/final-report/). In der Zwischenzeit liegt der vierte ERD vor (vgl. Link: http://www.erd-report.eu/erd/index.html) und thematisiert ebenfalls Fragen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, und zwar mit dem Fokus auf die Post-2015 Global Agenda.

Zudem wird das Thema der Sozialpolitik für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und für die nationale Politik in Entwicklungsländern immer wichtiger, weil die Reaktion der Staaten auf die Weltfinanzkrise 2008/09 gezeigt hat, dass Entwicklungsländer mit einer aktiven Sozialpolitik Krisen schneller und besser überwinden können. Einkommens- und Beschäftigungsverluste sowie negative Folgen der Krise für Ernährung, Bildung und Gesundheit können eher bewältigt werden. Auch für die makroökonomische Steuerung ergeben sich Vorteile. Zudem wird die Politik der Armutsbekämpfung wesentlich effektiver, wenn grundlegende Elemente einer Sozialpolitik vorhanden sind und systematisch ausgebaut werden.

 

 

Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan, in:

Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern - ein Handbuch, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan,

in: Social Policies in Developing Economies - A Handbook, Berlin 2013)

 

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Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan

Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This is the title of a paper proposed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth for the Annual Conference 2013 of the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth was invited to this event by the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum. The theme of the conference is: "Towards a Confident Renaissance". The conference is held at the Friendship Hall in Khartoum and at the University of Khartoum-Main Campus. 

The theme Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as submitted to the conference is based on the recent research work by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Strategic Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see about the research program and the research output the link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/EconomicPoliciesInSudan.htm). 

Researches on the Sudan at the University of Bremen have a long history dating back to the year 1978 (see the list of selected publications of the Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG with the link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/files/dateien/1535_serg_38_2_2011.pdf).

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Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan: "Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt" ist soeben erschienen

In einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in der Republik Sudan und in der Republik Süd-Sudan analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die historische Entwicklung und die aktuelle Bedeutung der Sozialpolitik im Kontext der ökonomischen Entwicklung in den beiden Ländern. Ausgehend vom UNESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia)-Ansatz zur Analyse von Sozialpolitiken in Entwicklungsländern werden drei konzentrische Kreise von Sozialpolitiken analysiert: erstens die direkten Programme und Maßnahmen der Sozialpolitik und der Armutsbekämpfung, zweitens die Programme und Maßnahmen im Bereich der Bildungs-, Gesundheits- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik mit dem Ziel der besseren Daseinsvorsorge, und dann drittens die Möglichkeiten, makroökonomische und sektorale Politiken so zu gestalten, dass sozialpolitische Ziele angemessen durchgesetzt werden können (vgl. die Details zur neuen Publikation unter http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm).

Eine englischsprachige Übersetzung des Beitrages von Professor Wohlmuth ist im Rahmen der Bremer Sudanforschung vorgesehen. Dieser Beitrag wurde im Rahmen des Projektes über die ökonomische Kooperation des Sudan und des Süd-Sudan seit 2011 erstellt (vgl. Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/EconomicPoliciesInSudan.htm). 

 

Sudan und Süd-Sudan im

Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan, 

in: Handbook Social Policies of the World, Berlin 2013)

 

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Sound economies, sustainable economic policies and strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This was the title of the plenary lecture given by Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the Sudan/South Sudan conference in Hermannsburg which took place from October 31-November 2, 2012 (Link Final Conference Programme). Professor Wohlmuth presented in his lecture five criteria for sound economies and sustainable economic policies in Sudan and South Sudan: 

First, macroeconomic stability has to be provided. Because of the stop of oil production in January 2012 by the government of South Sudan the macroeconomic instability problems were even aggravated in both countries and they are still severe. 

Second, a medium term public finance framework is needed for both countries, especially so because of the volatility of oil revenues and the low importance of non-oil exports. Such medium-term public finance frameworks are not in place, and there is no Permanent Fund/Permanent Income approach at work to smooth the expenditures from the oil revenues towards stabilization and long-term development objectives. 

Third, a redirection of exports towards non-oil products is needed in both countries. However, the time since January 9, 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement) was not used in the two countries for generating non-oil exports. Despite of the huge agricultural resources and the agro-industrial opportunities, both countries are large-scale food importers. 

Fourth, effective social safety nets are needed to protect the poor and the poorest, but also the middle class which became impoverished in recent years, as the available rudimentary social safety systems have rather deteriorated. Public interventions in health and education sectors as well as towards the functioning of the labour market were highly inefficient and ineffective, and macroeconomic policies were not pro-poor.

Fifth, effective reductions of horizontal and vertical inequalities are requested but the reality in both states is that the regional imbalances and the income inequalities have rather increased. This has repercussions on political stability in both countries and on the perspectives of cooperation in the border-belt.

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the opening of the Plenary Session on Economic Issues in Sudan and South Sudan

 

Professor Wohlmuth also commented on the Nine Agreements between the two countries from September 27, 2012 at Addis Ababa and on the future tasks to promote a strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. Five core programmes for a strategic economic cooperation were presented (see PDF Sudan-South Sudan-Conference Presentation). Other contributions to the Conference were made by the Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission in Juba, South Sudan on the fight against corruption in South Sudan, by the General Secretary of SPLM/N on the situation in Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Khartoum by highlighting the perspectives for peaceful solutions. The former head of UNMIS in Juba spoke on national and regional challenges for the two states and the role of outsiders. The current situation of Abyei area was considered by a Member of the South Sudan Parliament representing Abyei in Juba.

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Justice John Gatwech Lul, Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Juba, South Sudan, and Marina Peter, Sudan Focal Point Europe and Conference Chair in a Plenary Discussion on Corruption in Sudan and South Sudan

 

The conference was attended by around 120 participants, among others by representatives of the civil society of Sudan and South Sudan, by regional and international church organizations and NGOs, by government organizations and ambassadors of Sudan and South Sudan, by media people and researchers on Sudan, by members of the German parliament, by the donor community, and by representatives from the SPLM/N speaking for ethnic and disadvantaged groups in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The Conference Communique (see Communique Hermannsburg Conference) presents a call for peace, reconciliation and good neighbourliness. The communique emphasizes also: "To avoid new conflicts and ensure sustainable peace, natural resource management and equitable sharing of resources should be a top priority at all levels in society – starting from the bottom-up. Oil is a key element, but a sound economy needs to be built on diversified sources of income. A strategic approach for economic relations between Sudan and South Sudan, with a special focus on the border areas, could help to safeguard peace and good neigbourliness. However, a prerequisite is to immediately address the needs of the people, and the end of armed conflicts." 

This Sudan/South Sudan Conference was the 25th in Hermannsburg which was directed by Marina Peter and Hermann Hartmann (see the leaflet informing about these 25 conferences: Leaflet Hermannsburg Conferences).

 

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