Tagungen und Workshops

Tagungen des IWIM

Ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Arbeit des Instituts ist die Durchführung der "Jahreswirtschaftstagung", der Veranstaltungsreihe "Weltwirtschaftliches Colloquium" sowie weiteren wissenschaftlichen Veranstaltungen. Dabei werden aktuelle Fragestellungen der Weltwirtschaft und des internationalen Managements diskutiert.
Die in zweijährigem Rhythmus stattfindende Jahreswirtschaftstagung bietet den Teilnehmern aus dem In- und Ausland ein Forum für den Informations- und Erfahrungsaustausch. In Vorträgen und Workshops werden u. a. auch die Forschungsergebnisse der dem Institut angeschlossenen Wissenschaftler mit dem Fachpublikum diskutiert.


  • November 2005: IX. Jahreswirtschaftstagung: "Wirtschafts- und Beschäftigungspolitik in der Globalisierung – Spielräume regionaler, nationaler und internationaler Akteure" (Tagungsort: World Trade Center, Bremen, Link zur Buchreihe).
  • November 2003: VIII. Jahreswirtschaftstagung: "See- und Luftverkehrsmärkte im Umbruch - Weltwirtschaftliche Strukturveränderungen auf strategischen Märkten" (Tagungsort: World Trade Center Bremen, Link zur Buchreihe).
  • November 2001: VII Jahreswirtschaftstagung: "Bilanz und Perspektiven der Transformation in Mittel- und Osteuropa" (Tagungsort: Bremer Forum; hier das Buch zu dieser Tagung, und der Link zur Buchreihe)
  • November 1999: VI. Jahreswirtschaftstagung: "Innovation als Schlüsselfaktor eines erfolgreichen Wirtschaftsstandortes – Nationale und Regionale Innovationssysteme im globalen Wettbewerb" (Tagungsort: World Trade Center Bremen; hier das Buch zu dieser Tagung).
  • November 1997: V. Jahreswirtschaftstagung: "Bremen im nationalen und internationalen Standortwettbewerb – Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven" (Tagungsort: World Trade Center Bremen; hier das Buch zu dieser Tagung).
  • November 1995: IV. Jahreswirtschaftstagung
    "Geschäftspartner China" (hier das Buch zu dieser Tagung)
  • IWIM-Jahreswirtschaftstagung 1993: III. Jahreswirtschaftstagung "Neue Perspektiven für internationale Unternehmenskooperationen" (Veröffentlichung: Sell, A. (Hrsg.): Neue Perspektiven für internationale Unternehmenskooperationen, Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management, Bd. 3, Tagungsband zur III. Jahreswirtschaftstagung des IWIM 1993, Lit-Verlag, Münster und Hamburg 1995) (Link zur Schriftenreihe des IWIM).
  • IWIM September 1992: II. Jahreswirtschaftstagung "Kleine Energieprojekte in Entwicklungsländern" (Veröffentlichung: Köllmann, C./Oesterdiekhoff, P./Wohlmuth, K. (Hrsg.): Kleine Energieprojekte in Entwicklungsländern, Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management, Bd. 1, Lit-Verlag, Münster und Hamburg 1993) (Link zur Schriftenreihe des IWIM).
  • IWIM-Jahreswirtschaftstagung 1991: I. Jahreswirtschaftstagung "Die Transformation der osteuropäischen Länder in die Marktwirtschaft" (Veröffentlichung: Fischer, Jürgen/Frank Messner/Karl Wohlmuth (Hrsg.): Die Transformation der osteuropäischen Länder in die Marktwirtschaft, Schriftenreihe Osteuropa, Geschichte, Wirtschaft, Politik, Band 3, Münster/Hamburg: Lit Verlag 1992) (Link:http://books.google.de/books/about/Die_Transformation_der_osteurop%C3%A4ischen.html?id=LbQIv6VJ70cC&redir_esc=y).

Konferenzen / Workshops mit Afrikabezug:

Konferenzen mit China- / Ostasienbezug:


Invitations to important Conferences on Economic Development, Global Economic Problems, Decolonization, Political Economy, and Innovation and Technology Policies/Einladung zu wichtigen Konferenzen über Ökonomische Entwicklung, Globale Wirtschaftsprobleme, Dekolonialisierung, Politische Ökonomie und Innovations- und Technologiepolitik

Sudan is since April 2019 on the way to a new government and may also change its failed economic model:

Since two months a women-led opposition movement is fighting for a new – democratic and civilian - government (see on this movement in Sudan: https://www.ozy.com/fast-forward/women-led-protests-are-shaking-up-sudan/93513). Economists in Sudan are now exploring new development paths for the country. Young Sudanese economists, who are organized in the Sudan Research Group (SRG) and who were trained in the Sudan, in the United Kingdom, in Germany and in other European countries are holding a conference in Khartoum on key areas of economic reform (see the SRG Tentative Agenda). The title of the conference is: Towards a New Vision for Inclusive Development in Sudan, 22-24 June 2019. After an Introduction seven (7) clusters are built for presentations and discussions (Macroeconomic Management for Inclusive Development; Bringing the Production Sectors back in; Governance and Institutions; Management of Natural Resources; Sustainable Infrastructure; Social Policy and Public Service Delivery; and The Role of the Private Sector), followed by the final Session on the Way Forward. Karl Wohlmuth is advising the organizers on certain aspects of the programme. He has recently participated at the Sudan Expert Consultation of the Foreign Office in Berlin where the current developments were discussed. In various publications Professor Wohlmuth has developed an alternative framework for economic policies in Sudan.


A leading Development Policy Thinktank - The German Development Institute – discusses on New Middle Classes and Green Transformation in Developing Countries

The German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) in Bonn has become over the recent years a major global thinktank and organizes important conferences on current development issues.

A workshop on Preferences, attitudes and environmental impact of the new middle classes was held in April 2019 (see the link: https://www.die-gdi.de/veranstaltungen/details/preferences-attitudes-and-environmental-impact-of-the-new-middle-classes/). New middle classes in Ghana, Peru and the Philippines were analysed by using large household surveys. It was investigated how sustainable consumer choices can be induced in developing countries. Professor Wohlmuth has recently contributed to the discussion about African middle classes as a base for entrepreneurship development.

The German Development Institute held in June 2018 a conference on Green Transformation and competitive advantage: Evidence from developing countries. It is interesting to see that developing countries also in Africa are committed more and more to green growth models. Recently, South Africa has introduced a carbon tax to meet the global climate policy targets; the government imposed a tax of $8.34 per ton of CO2 equivalent from June 1, 2019. Electricity prices and as well fuel prices may go up as a consequence. Only 40 out of 200 countries who have signed the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 have so far decided about carbon taxation (see the link: http://www.thecarbonreport.co.za/the-proposed-south-african-carbon-tax/). The purpose is to keep global temperatures from rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The conference programme (see the preliminary programme 2018 as PDF) has a focus on internalizing environmental costs and on competitive advantages. It is asked: Have the developing countries the financial and institutional capacity to internalize the environmental costs? Will in these countries - as they are mostly still factor-driven - the internalization of the environmental costs undermine their competitive advantages? This is of interest for the researches of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen. Professor Wohlmuth and his team are working on volume 22 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook which will consider among others the relevance of Sustainable Development Goals One (1), Seven (7) and Nine (9) for Africa's development. A key aspect is the greening of Africa's industry. A recent study by Professors Reuben A. Alabi and Karl Wohlmuth discusses the cases of waste management in Nigeria and in Germany .There is a potential for greening the economy of Nigeria through more coherent waste management policies which are firmly based on constructive urbanization, infrastructure, industry and agriculture policies. But, the study also emphasizes that Nigeria and also Germany are still far away from a transition to a circular economy model of waste and resources management.

International Working Seminar on Fair Global Supply Chains at the ICDD (International Center for Development and Decent Work), Kassel, Germany

An International Working Seminar was held on the theme Responsibility and Accountability of Supply Chains in March 2019. The Seminar Programme (see the RASC program pdf) emphasizes neglected social, legal and economic aspects of global value chains (human rights, CSR and governance, fairness, trust and power, transparency, social sustainability, working conditions, and social upgrading), An Agenda for Reforms and Actions, various Country Cases (Ghana, Brazil, Eduador, Colombia, Sri Lanka, Germany, and Italy), and exemplary Sector Cases (like food supply chains) are part of the programme. Recently, Professor Wohlmuth has discussed the issues of transparency of commodity supply chains in the Journal of European Economy (Ternopil, Ukraine). He emphasized the necessary reforms – by referring to insights from J. M. Keynes - to make the international commodity markets and the global supply chains more transparent (Links: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/vol-17-no-4-december-2018-en/ and: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/1133-journal-of-european-economy-vol-17-number-4-december-2018-pp.html). In various issues of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, the weaknesses of the global commodity markets were analysed, especially in relation to Africa's development problems and strategies (see the links: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).


The Unfinished Task of Decolonization – New Approaches and Ways of Thinking

In a seminar Unvollendete Dekolonisierung, Dimensionen deutscher Verantwortung in March 2019 leading experts on Africa from Hamburg and Bremen emphasized the responsibility of Germany in regard of its past as a colonial power (see: Flyer Unvollendete Dekolonisierung). Emphasis is on the role of artefacts from German colonies which were collected in colonial times for museums in Hamburg and elsewhere in Germany. It is a task of decolonization to discuss these issues with the experts in the former colonies who want to work out their own strategies of decolonization. The gradual transformation of the museums in Hamburg which are hosting such artefacts is described. The colonial heritage of Germany is discussed with regard of Namibia and Cameroon. Professor Zimmerer from the Forschungsstelle "Hamburgs (Post-) Koloniales Erbe" is heading the research group in Hamburg which is working on Hamburg's colonial heritage. Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the University of Applied Sciences in Bremen emphasized during the seminar the type of economic relations persisting between Africa and Europe since colonial times. The Post-Cotonou negotiations may be a further chance to renew the relations between Africa and Europe (Link: https://info.brot-fuer-die-welt.de/blog/post-cotonou-chance-eine-neue-partnerschaft). It is argued now in various circles that decolonization has to be accomplished also in terms of trade, investment and development cooperation agreements between Africa and Europe.

There is also since long time a discussion in Bremen about its role in the colonial period, and it led to various actions at the political level, in the civil society, in museums and culture institutions, and in the city where symbols of colonialism still matter. Also, there is a new awareness in the work at museums and at universities in Bremen, but very intensive is also the discussion on decolonization in political circles in Bremen. However, Bremen is not only working on its colonial past, as it is also active in regard of the situation of the Western Sahara/the DARS (Demokratische Arabische Republik Sahara). DARS is considered widely as the last colony in Africa. So, Bremen is on the way to work on its own colonial history but is also considering the fate of the many refugees from the Western Sahara living under miserable conditions in Algeria and in the small free part of the DARS. NGOs in Bremen but also official political circles are discussing the still unsolved future of the area which was occupied after the Spanish colonial period by Morocco (see on the work of such NGOs for the people of the Western Sahara: https://de-de.facebook.com/FreieWestsahara/ and: https://wsrw.org/lDE). So, there is a double role of recognizing the colonial heritage in Bremen – first, accepting the responsibility of having a colonial past with impacts on our life still today and second, acting on the commitment to support a sovereign Western Sahara ruled by its people, being still now the last colony in Africa.


Karl Marx, Marxism and the Global South – International Symposium in Bremen on 4-5 May, 2018

On 5 May, 2018 the 200th birthday of Karl Marx was commemorated with a variety of events and exhibitions throughout the world. A key event was the conference in Bremen "Karl Marx, Marxism, and the Global South" (see for information: Beschreibung Marx, Marxism and Global South and: Marx Symposium preliminary programme). The conference organizers describe the purpose of the conference with the following words: "The symposium aims at critically acknowledging, reviewing and discussing Marx's ideas, influences and legacies from a variety of perspectives of the Global South, focusing on postcolonial interpretations and adaptations as well as on circulations of utopian ideas. During the 20th century and the liberation movements in the Global South, often memorized traditional-societal and Marxist ideas (on modernization) were interwoven into utopian visions of the future (e.g. in the writings of José Mariátegui/Peru, Kwame Nkrumah/Ghana or Ali Schariati/Iran). Marxist thoughts had and still have an effect on visions of a fairer world in the Global South and beyond. The question how more just societies and sustainable modes of production could be designed, is not only a historical and utopian but also a question of contemporary relevance, deserving closer attention in the humanities."

Source: https://mlecture.uni-bremen.de/ml/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=373


The conference, the mobile lectures and the publications following the event are of interest to economists and social scientists who are working on development issues and on international relations.

The following questions have guided the conference work:

How did Marx understand the historical-societal developments in Asia, Africa and the Americas?

  • How did he interpret anti-colonial movements?
  • What importance within capitalist production was assigned to the Global South in various interpretations of Marxist ideas?
  • On what kind of understanding of nature was his interpretation of the development of productive forces based on?
  • How were and are Karl Marx's ideas received and utilized in the Global South?
  • What are possible utopian potentials of Karl Marx's work in today's globalized world with nations, labour forces, capital, resources and goods ordered in political and economic matrixes of power?

All these questions are of relevance when we look at the current challenges, opportunities, contradictions and conflicts prevailing in the Global South.

See on further information about the conference, the mobile lectures, and the conference results: https://www.hsozkult.de/event/id/termine-36553 and: https://mlecture.uni-bremen.de/ml/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=373 and: https://marxandtheglobalsouth.wordpress.com/ and: https://www.woc.uni-bremen.de/event/inputs-international-symposium-karl-marx-marxism-and-the-global-south-university-of-bremen-city-university-of-applied-sciences/.

A valuable introduction to the theme is presented by Lucia Pradella, Marx and the Global South: Connecting History and Value Theory, in: Sociology 2017, Vol. 51(1) 146–16; see: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0038038516661267


ITAFORUM 2019 des BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) am 14. und 15. Februar 2019 in Berlin: Die Konferenz zur Innovations- und Technikanalyse

Alle Projektteilnehmer und Gutachter des Programms werden regelmäßig zu den Jahrestreffen in Berlin eingeladen. In diesem Rahmen werden neue fachübergreifende Themen und zukünftige Entwicklungen von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz auf ihre Chancen und Risiken hin untersucht (vgl. das Programm des ITAFORUM 2019). Zum Programm für 2019 heißt es in der Einladung: "Auf dem ITAFORUM 2019 werden die Projekte des neuen Förderzyklus vorgestellt, die sich mit Themen wie künstliche Intelligenz und virtuelle Realitäten, digitale Plattformsysteme, kulturelle Diversität, Partizipationsfähigkeit sowie Governance von Innovationsprozessen befassen." Nach einer Einführung in das neue Förderprogramm wurden sechs (6) Themenfelder diskutiert: Künstliche Intelligenz; Digitale Plattformsysteme; Kulturelle Diversität; Partizipationsfähigkeit; Governance von Innovationsprozessen; und das Themenfeld "Themenoffen"; im Anschluss daran folgten Zusammenfassungen der Workshop-Arbeit.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth war als Gutachter an dem Programm beteiligt und arbeitet seit vielen Jahren an Innovationsprozessen in Emerging Economies. In zwei Ausgaben des African Development Perspectives Yearbook wurde das Thema "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" in umfassenden Analysen und Länderstudien abgehandelt (Band 20 für 2018 und Band 21 für 2019). Der Bremer Professor hat auch an mehreren Studien der UNIDO zu Technologie- und Innnovationspolitiken in Afrika mitgewirkt.

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“Aviation in Africa” International Workshop in Bremen, June 2018: The Role of a More Balanced Transport Infrastructure in Africa was emphasized by University of Bremen’s development economist Professor Karl Wohlmuth in his Keynote Lecture

Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a Keynote Lecture on Transport Infrastructure and Regional Integration in Africa – A Neglected Link at the second “Aviation in Africa” International Workshop which was organized in June 2018 by the Institute for Transport and Development (ITD) of the Hochschule Bremen (City University of Applied Sciences Bremen) on behalf of  the international scientific organization GARS (German Aviation Research Society). Professor Wohlmuth emphasized in his lecture the following themes: Scoping the neglected link of transport infrastructure and regional integration; New Initiatives to link Infrastructure, Continental and Regional Development in Africa; Transformative Regional Integration and Infrastructure Development in Africa; The “Infrastructure State”, Regional Integration and Aviation Development in Africa; and Conclusions –Way Forward in Africa. More than hundred experts on aviation and development participated at the three days meeting in Bremen (see the PDF Programme and the PDF Power Point Presentation).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth speaks about “Transport Infrastructure and Regional Integration in Africa”


Professor Deusdedit Rwehumbiza from the University of Dar es Salaam speaks about “Perspectives of regional integration in East Africa”

Participants (left Conference Organizer Professor Hans-Martin Niemeier from the ITD) listen to the lecture of Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass about “Monetary Integration in East Africa”

Professor Wohlmuth argued in his lecture that a new approach towards transformative regional integration is needed for Africa to overcome the bottleneck factors which impede structural change in Africa. Not trade liberalisation is the key priority issue of regional integration, but structural transformation between and within economic sectors. This “transformative regional integration approach” contrasts with the “linear regional integration model” which was inherited in Africa from the European integration process. Also, it was strongly emphasized that transport infrastructure development is biased in Africa as roads construction (within the countries and at cross-border level) is still the key transport sector development business. Other transport modes, like railways, aviation, waterways and rivers, and ocean shipping, are still neglected. But most seriously, the mobility concepts are not clarified in Africa; it is not made clear how the transport modes are really used (by producers and consumers). Huge investment projects are agreed upon in the context of national, regional and continental transport development programmes, but financing, implementation and maintenance levels are weak, and the social, commercial and economic benefits of the projects are not always made clear. The map of PIDA’s Priority Action Plan (see below) shows how neglected other transport modes than roads (along the Corridors and the Trans African Highways routes) are and will be until 2040.


From: Export-Import Bank of India, Connecting Africa: Role of Transport Infrastructure, March 2018, p.42

Note: PIDA/Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa

Aviation has huge developmental advantages for Africa, but this transport sub-sector is still neglected in all decision-making processes, at national, regional and continental African political and governance levels. The observed progress of Africa in terms of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) development indicators gives hope and will facilitate the build-up of an aviation infrastructure. Aviation has huge effects in Africa on employment, industrialization, technological development, skills and human resources development, regional development, export development, mobility of people, goods and ideas, and especially on the opening of economies for trade, investment, technological innovation and skilled migration. The proposed publication project for volume 22 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization and Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities” will consider the issues of a more balanced transport infrastructure in Africa as a base for a broad industrialization advance and the speeding-up of innovation processes in African firms (see PDF International Call for Papers for Volume 22, 2020). Members of GARS and other experts on aviation in Africa are invited to submit their Abstracts to the Editors of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (see the link to the Yearbook programme: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm).

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Alternative Economy and Social Justice: Workshop at the Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) in Tunis

Professors Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert  Kappel and Karl Wohlmuth were invited by the FES Tunis to speak at the workshop “Alternative Economy and Social Justice”, 14-15 September 2017, about the future of labour in the MENA region.  The focus on the first day was on Employment and Alternative Sectors: Green Economy, Digital Economy, as well as Social and Solidarity Economy. It was expected by the organizers that the experts give concrete recommendations and suggestions on the role of the civil society – more precisely the trade unions - in order to preserve labour rights and to warrant the sustainability of jobs within these new sectors of an alternative economy. The second day was reserved for a common meeting with the regional projects “Climate and Energy”, “For Socially Just Development” and the “Regional Trade Union Project”.

It was planned for the first day to have an expert debate on the subject of new opportunities and challenges of the transformation of the labour market in the context of the newly emerging three sectors in the MENA Region. In particular, the labour market implications of the Green Economy, the Digital Economy, and the Social and Solidarity Economy were discussed. The three German economists were invited because of their collaboration with the FES on a study to analyse the starting points for an employment strategy for Tunisia (see the PDF of the study: library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/13336.pdf, and for a download of the versions in German, Arabic, French and English languages see: https://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien). A short report about the meeting summarizes the main points of discussion (see the link: http://www.fes-mena.org/events/e/alternative-economy-and-employment/). The event was part of a larger programme of the FES for the MENA region (see on the programme “Economic Policies for Social Justice”: http://www.fes-mena.org/topics/economic-policies-for-social-justice/, and on the book as a final report with the title “Towards Socially Juist Development in the MENA Region”, to be accessed for download via PDF: library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13871.pdf).

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Weiterbildungsseminar für eine hochrangige Delegation von Hochschulexperten aus der Provinz Sichuan, Volksrepublik China: Vortrag von Professor Karl Wohlmuth über Innovationsstrategien in Deutschland und im Land Bremen

Professor Karl Wohlmuth hielt einen Vortrag zum Thema: Kooperative Innovationsstrategien in Deutschland und im Land Bremen. Die Rolle der verschiedenen Akteure. Der Vortrag fand am Montag, 28. 8. 2017, im International Graduate Center (IGC) der Hochschule Bremen statt. Professoren und Dozenten von Hochschulinstituten der Provinz Sichuan, insbesondere vom Sichuan Administration Institute (SAI) unter der  Leitung von Frau Deng Ying, Vize-Präsidentin, informierten sich über den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland und über neue Innovationsstrategien der Politik und der Unternehmen. Auch die „One Belt, One Road“-Initiative der chinesischen Regierung wurde aus deutscher Sicht bewertet. Die Rolle der Denkfabriken in Deutschland bei der Entscheidungsfindung über Großprojekte, internationale Projekte und Innovationsprojekte war auch ein Themenkomplex des Seminars.

Professor Wohlmuth ging in seinem Vortrag zunächst detailliert auf die Rolle Deutschlands im globalen Innovationswettbewerb ein, um dann die Struktur der Nationalen und Regionalen Innovationssysteme und die Rolle der verschiedenen Akteure zu erläutern. In einem weiteren Teil des Vortrages wurde die Zusammenarbeit von Universitäten, außeruniversitären Forschungsinstituten und Unternehmen in Bremen erläutert; an Beispielen wurde verdeutlicht, wie  Unternehmen, Forschungsinstitute und Behörden bei Innovationsprojekten kooperieren. Von besonderem Interesse war für die chinesischen Teilnehmer des Seminars die Art der Einbindung der bremischen Innovationspolitik und Innovationsförderung in den Rahmen der Innovationsstrategie der Bundespolitik. Auch die Beziehungen der Akteure der Innovationspolitik in Deutschland und in Bremen mit dem Ausland interessierten die Teilnehmer.

Die lebhafte Diskussion ging auch um die Entscheidungsprozesse bei der Vergabe von Fördermitteln für Innovationsprojekte; die Rolle der europäischen und bundespolitischen Akteure bei der Finanzierung von Projekten wurde hinterfragt. Auch der Spielraum der einzelnen Forscher bei der Entscheidung über die Wahl von Forschungsthemen und bei der Mitteleinwerbung interessierte die Teilnehmer aus der Provinz Sichuan. Großen Raum im Vortrag und bei der Diskussion nahmen die Neue Hightech Strategie der Bundesrepublik und die neue Hightech Strategie von China, die Strategie „Made in China 2025“, ein; eine vergleichende Analyse wurde präsentiert. Die dargestellten Bewertungen der deutschen Innovationstätigkeit durch die EU (im European Innovation Scoreboard 2017 und im Research and Innovation Observatory (RIO)-Länderbericht 2016: Deutschland) zeigten den Teilnehmern die Stärken und die Schwächen der deutschen Innovationslandschaft in vergleichender europäischer Perspektive auf. Am Beispiel von bremischen Innovationsprojekten wurde dann noch gezeigt, wie die diversen Akteure (Unternehmen, Forschungsinstitute, Finanzinstitute, Behörden, Consultingbüros, etc.) in Clustern kooperieren und wie Absprachen zwischen Unternehmen, Forschungseinrichtungen und Behörden zustande kommen.

Die Präsentation zu dem Vortrag ist als PDF verfügbar (vgl. PDF Wohlmuth, Sichuan Province, Kooperative Innovationsstrategien). Eine Ausarbeitung auf der Basis des Vortrages ist vorgesehen.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth war auch eingeladen, einen Vortrag bei einem Weiterbildungsseminar vom 4. 7. bis 11. 7. 2016 für Teilnehmer aus der Provinz Tianjin, Volksrepublik China zum Thema „Innovation und industrielle Entwicklung in Deutschland“ zu halten. Die PDFs zu anderen Vorträgen von Professor Karl Wohlmuth in diesem Programm für chinesische Experten sind über die beiden Homepages (IWIM und Karl Wohlmuth) abrufbar.

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The Growth of the Dual Economy in Advanced Economies. The October 2017 Conference of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) in Edinburgh, Scotland

The programme of the Conference of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) in Edinburgh, 21-23 October, had the overall theme: “Reawakening. From the Origins of Economic Ideas to the Challenges of Our Time”. The Conference was a remarkable event. There were panels, main lectures and presentations, keynote lectures, breakfast, lunch and dinner sessions, on subjects such as the consequences of the financial crisis and the great recession afterwards; the future of the eurozone; the growth of the dual economy in the advanced economies; the causes of popular revolts and of the rise of populism; lessons from democratic collapses and the rise of Nazi Germany; the rise of Trump and the America First Agenda; the emergence of public and private debt traps; the role of fake news and the role of economists; new developments in various contested fields of economics and political economy; but also discussions on developing economies and emerging economies; on Adam Smith and the Scottish Enlightenment; on technology and economic development; on immigration and intergenerational issues; on gains from trade, and so on. Lectures and presentations by four Nobel Prize Economists were of special importance and insights. George Akerlof, James Heckman, Michael Spence and Joseph Stiglitz gave impressive presentations on methodology used by economists, on specific contested issues of the economics profession, and on the policy implications of the work of the economists in governments and international organizations (see the link to the event: https://www.ineteconomics.org/events/reawakening). See on the overall agenda of INET: https://www.ineteconomics.org/

For development economists the sessions about the growth of the dual economy in the advanced world were a highlight. The discussion about dual economies was for a long time a domain of development economics; the development economists studied the take-off and the catching-up issues. The original purpose of dual economy models was it to show how a modern sector can be developed through surplus labour from a stagnating traditional sector. Now top economists were discussing at the conference in Edinburgh the growth of the dual economy in advanced countries to understand the “high income trap” which is affecting the most advanced economies. At high average per capita income levels severe problems arise for growth, employment and distribution which create political tensions and social problems in many advanced countries (see on the need to analyse the “high income trap” of the OECD countries as deeply as the “middle income trap” of the developing countries the following viewpoint: https://asia.nikkei.com/Viewpoints-archive/Economeister/Time-to-talk-about-the-high-income-trap?page=2). A new class formation is presented which is resulting from the “high income trap”: the “precariat” is increasing, the “rentier class” is growing, but the “middle class” is vanishing. In two sessions of the Edinburgh Conference the reasons for the emergence of the dual economy in the advanced countries and the type of policies to prevent the further advance of the dual economy were discussed. The new class formation is associated with a growing income share of the upper 1% of the income earners, while an increasing part of the capital share is going to the rentier class and an increasing part of the labour share is going to higher level wage earners.

The middle class is described as increasingly vulnerable and vanishing, while the class of precarious income earners is rapidly growing. Figures presented by Lance Taylor at the Edinburgh Conference highlight the new class structure for the USA. The USA have a three-class economy, so that it is better to speak of a “trialism”, not of a “dualism” in the USA (and probably the same situation is in other advanced economies). Lance Taylor writes: “The main income sources of the top 1% of households are from capital gains, proprietors’ incomes, interest, and dividends. Including capital gains they have a 50+ % saving rate, and 40% of total wealth. Households between the 60th and 99th percentiles get 70% of their income from wages, ~10% each from fiscal transfers, finance, and proprietors’ incomes. They save less than 10%, and hold 60% of wealth (mostly housing). The bottom 60% get almost 50% of income from wages, and 45% from government transfers. They have negative reported saving (true for other OECD economies), and a negligible wealth.” The interactions of these three classes (assuming that these trends continue) are important for the overall dynamics or stagnation of the economy. The interactions determine also the crises to be anticipated. Therefore, the Edinburgh Conference discussed which type of policies could prevent the spread of dual or trial economies and the emergence of severe crises in the future (proposed interventions mentioned were: innovative enterprises to achieve sustained prosperity; wealth creation through state entrepreneurship; new policies for redistribution of wealth and income; a guaranteed minimum income plus a commitment of the society to full employment; gender-related policies to combat the dualism and trialism; etc.). Reforms to get out of the “high income trap” are possible, but the “policy paralysis” has to be overcome.

Professor Wohlmuth had the opportunity to participate as a guest observer at the conference in Edinburgh by invitation of INET. The participation at the conference opens new avenues for the work in development economics, but also in regard of international economic policy. The dual/trial economy approach as applied to advanced economies is also helpful to understand the rise of the populists all over the world, the danger of democratic collapses, and the decline of the Social Democratic Movement in Europe. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has written a Note on the reasons for the decline of the Social Democrats in Germany, which is based on the dualism/trialism concept and which is also relevant for an understanding of the decline of Social Democratic Parties in other countries of the Eurozone.

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ECOSOC and Sustainable Development Goal 9: „Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation“

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is invited as a speaker to the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC in preparation of the 2017 Special Meeting to be held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. ECOSOC is intensively working now on the global implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As SDG 9 has great relevance for poverty eradication, the complex issues are discussed in various Global Conferences. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is one of the speakers at the Global Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC on “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization” will highlight the following issues (see the link: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting):

WHAT? The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC will address the theme “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization”, putting the spotlight on the relevance of Sustainable Development Goal 9 (SDG-9) and its inter-linkages with other Goals and targets. Two preparatory events – in Dakar, Senegal (26 March) and in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe (24-26 April) – were organised in the lead-up to the Special Meeting.

WHEN? The 2017 Special Meeting will be held on 31 May 2017, in the ECOSOC Chamber at UN Headquarters, New York.

WHY? Resilient infrastructure and sustainable industrialization are key enablers of poverty eradication and can promote inclusion, connectivity and equality within societies. However, these sectors can be complex and expensive to develop, especially in countries in Africa and countries in special situations. The Special Meeting will aim to bring the challenges involved to the attention of national, regional and international actors, and to forge solutions to bridge the gaps in infrastructure, industrialization and innovation across countries.

WHO? The 2017 Special Meeting will bring together high-level representatives of Member States, representatives of the United Nations system, international organizations, civil society and other non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector. The overall initiative is supported by a range of UN entities including FAO, OHRLLS (UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States), OSAA (Office of the Special Adviser on Africa), UNCTAD, UNDP, UNECA, UNHABITAT, UNIDO and WIPO, and engaging other organizations such as the African Development Bank, the African Union, NEPAD and representatives from academia, civil society and the private sector.

Invitation: Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited by His Excellency, Mr. Frederick Musiwa Makamure Shava, President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to speak at the „Global Expert Meeting on Agriculture and Agro-industries Development towards Sustainable and Resilient Food Systems“ in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe about “Strategies towards Industrialization based on Agricultural Development - Lessons learned from the 3ADI model and moving beyond 3ADI”. The Conference is held on 24-26 April 2017, arranged by ECOSOC, FAO, UNIDO, and other UN organizations.

Further Information:

See the Programme of the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC: PDF ECOSOC-Draft Programme

See the Press Release of IWIM at the occasion of this Event: PDF Press Release of IWIM on ECOSOC

See the Link to the ECOSOC working programme on SDG 9 with meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City (United Nations Headquarters): https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

See the Link to the Special Meeting of ECOSOC on “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization” at: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

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Die Vereinten Nationen präsentieren die zwei aktuellen Ausgaben des Bremer Afrika-Jahrbuchs in Kigali, Ruanda zum Thema „Fortschritte Afrikas bei der regionalen und globalen ökonomischen Integration“

Seit 1989 wird von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven an der Universität Bremen, geleitet von Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, das African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgegeben. Nun hat die UN-Wirtschaftskommission für Afrika in Kigali, Ruanda die beiden Ausgaben des Jahrbuchs für 2015/2016 und 2017 der afrikanischen Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt. Das Launch Event fand vom 25.- 27. Oktober 2016 auf Einladung des UNECA-Direktors Andrew Mold im Kigali Convention Centre (KCC) statt (Programme Kigali). Es ging darum, wichtige Multiplikatoren aus Politik, Wissenschaft, Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und Medien über die zentralen Inhalte der beiden Bände zu informieren. Eingeladen waren die Presse, Botschafter aus den Ländern der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft, Politiker und Beamte der ruandischen Regierung, Experten von UN-Organisationen, die Chefökonomen der Regierung und der Zentralbank, Vertreter von Universitäten und Experten von Organisationen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Professor Karl Wohlmuth legte Pressetexte zu den beiden Bänden (Press Release Volume 18 und Press Release Volume 19), die Eröffnungsrede (Opening Speech) und einen Überblick zur entwicklungspolitischen Bedeutung des Jahrbuch-Projektes für Afrika vor (Wohlmuth-Panel Discussion 3). Die Politikrelevanz der bisherigen 19 Bände wurde in der Präsentation analysiert.

Der Inhalt des Bandes für 2015/2016 „Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa“ wurde mit großem Interesse aufgenommen, da auch in Ostafrika effektivere Wege einer regionalen Zusammenarbeit gesucht werden. Die regionale Integration in Afrika ist in den letzten Jahren zu einem Schwerpunktthema im Rahmen der Afrikanischen Union (AU) geworden; die UN-Wirtschaftskommission für Afrika arbeitet über diese Fragen sehr intensiv und thematisiert die Strukturprobleme der regionalen Integration für ganz Afrika. Im Band für 2015/2016 wird auf jene strukturverändernden Interventionen eingegangen, die den regionalen Integrationsprozess in Afrika unumkehrbar machen könnten und insgesamt zu mehr Wachstum, Beschäftigung und sozialem Ausgleich führen. An dem Band 18 waren u. a. Experten der UNCTAD/Genf, der FAO/Rom, der UNECA/Kigali, von TRALAC, Stellenbosch, vom ECDPM/Maastricht und Forscher aus afrikanischen Ländern (Sudan, Botswana, Ghana) sowie von der Bremer Forschungsgruppe beteiligt. In mehreren grundlegenden Abhandlungen wurde verdeutlicht, dass die regionale Integration in Afrika nicht nach dem Modell der EU funktioniert, sondern zunächst bei den Strukturdefiziten ansetzen muss, die innerhalb des regionalen Integrationsraums den Handel, die Investitionen, die Arbeitskräftewanderungen, die Kapitalbewegungen und die makroökonomische Koordination erschweren. Das Ministerium von Ruanda für die Ostafrikanische Gemeinschaft unter der Leitung von Frau Ministerin Valentine Rugwabiza und andere Behörden von Ruanda haben das Vorhaben von Anfang an aktiv mit unterstützt.

Eine Arbeitsgruppensitzung des Launch Events in  Kigali, Rwanda, im Kigali Convention Centre.

Links im Bild: Dr. Thomas Kigabo, Chefökonom der National Bank of Rwanda bei seiner Ansprache;
zweiter von rechts: der Managing Editor des African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Prof. Dr. Tobias Knedlik
Quelle: The New Times, Kigali, Rwanda

Im Band für 2017 zum Thema „New Trade and Investment Policies for Africa“ wird darauf aufbauend analysiert, wie eine neue Handels- und Investitionspolitik in Afrika durchgesetzt werden kann, um global wettbewerbsfähig zu werden. Es geht dabei um Themen, die lange in Afrika vernachlässigt wurden: Wie kann eine Handels- und Investitionspolitik so weiterentwickelt werden, dass es zu mehr Wachstum, zu höherer Beschäftigung und zu schnelleren Strukturveränderungen kommt?; welche Rolle spielen neue Politiken bei der dringend notwendigen Exportdiversifizierung in Afrika?; wie können die Öl exportierenden Länder in Afrika ihre Handels- und Investitionspolitik so steuern, dass Landwirtschaft und Industrie Entwicklungschancen haben?; und, wie können durch neue Politiken auch international konkurrenzfähige internationale Unternehmen in Afrika gefördert werden? Federführend waren bei diesem Band neben den Experten der Bremer Forschungsgruppe dänische, tunesische, gambische und nigerianische Ökonomen und Ökonominnen beteiligt. Dieser Band ist für Ruanda wie auch für andere Länder der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft von großem Interesse, weil Ruanda als kleines Land ohne direkten Zugang zu Häfen auf offene Märkte und große Integrationsräume angewiesen ist.

Im Mittelpunkt der Diskussionen standen aus aktuellen Gründen auch die Themen des Brexit und einer Afrikanischen Währungsunion. Die Wirkungen des Brexit auf die Ostafrikanische Gemeinschaft (EAC-East African Community) haben mit der Bedeutung von Großbritannien für die meisten Länder der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft zu tun, aber der Brexit beeinflusst auch die Zukunft des EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement) zwischen EU und EAC. Diese Themen haben beim Launch-Event daher eine besondere Rolle gespielt. Präsentationen von UNECA-Direktor Andrew Mold und von Professor Tobias Knedlik bezogen sich daher direkt auf die Perspektiven einer vertieften Integration in Ostafrika nach dem Brexit und einer Afrikanischen Währungsunion. Aber auch die weitergehenden Integrationspläne wie TFTA (Tripartite Free Trade Area) und CFTA (Continental Free Trade Area) wurden intensiv diskutiert. Der Band 18 des Jahrbuchs war für alle diese Fragen der vertieften regionalen Integration eine gute Grundlage. Neben den monetären Aspekten der regionalen Integration standen auch die Strategien zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Ländern und Unternehmen in Ostafrika im Fokus. Der Beitrag von neuen Handels- und Investitionspolitiken zur Lösung von Problemen in Ostafrika wurde mit Bezug auf den Band 19 des Jahrbuchs diskutiert.

Die Präsentation der beiden Jahrbuch-Ausgaben in Kigali wurde in Form eines Politikdialogs zwischen Wissenschaft, Politik und Medien durchgeführt. Die Politikrelevanz der wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Jahrbücher wurde an Beispielen dargestellt. Die Fernsehinterviews zum Launch Event mit Professor Tobias Knedlik, dem Managing Editor des Jahrbuchs, und mit UNECA-Direktor Andrew Mold wurden in 48 afrikanischen Ländern gesendet. Der UNESCO-Direktor Nazar Hassan, Kairo, gab einen Überblick zum Thema des Bandes 20 für 2018 über „Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa“. Diese Thematik ist für eine vertiefte regionale und globale ökonomische Integration der afrikanischen Länder überaus wichtig (Hassan STI Policy und Hassan Yearbook Kigali). Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Ekpoma, Nigeria, derzeit Universität Bremen, hat ein Statement zu den Instrumenten einer vertieften Handelsförderung für Sub-Sahara-Länder vorgelegt; die Initiativen der „Trade Facilitation“ und von „Aid for Trade“ wurden von der nigerianischen Forschergruppe im Band 19 kritisch beleuchtet (Alabi-Kigali-Statement). Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird eine Dokumentation über das Launch Event in Kigali erstellen. 

Bibliographische Daten zu den Afrika-Jahrbüchern:

Wohlmuth, Karl/Achim Gutowski/Tobias Knedlik/Patrick N. Osakwe/Isabelle Ramdoo (Editors), 2016, African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2015/16, Volume 18, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers, 456 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-643-90523-9 (Web Information: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy )

Wohlmuth, Karl/Reuben A. Alabi/Achim Gutowski/Tobias Knedlik/Oyebanke Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, 2016, African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2017, Volume 19, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers, 486 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-643-90785-1 (Web Information: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy )

Vgl. auch die Flyer zu den beiden Bänden: Wohlmuth Cover Band 18 und ADPY-Cover Volume 19


Fernsehinterviews anlässlich des Launch Events:

Details from CNBC Africa about the Interviews during the Launch Event:
TV Interview with UNECA Director Andrew Mold: “EAC's challenges toward a Monetary Union”

Thu, 27 Oct 2016 10:10:51 GMT 8 views


Text from CNBC Africa: “As the East African Community gears to become a Monetary Union, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in partnership with the University of Bremen organised a Policy dialogue on regional integration aimed at drawing lessons from the experiences of other regional blocs. CNBC Africa spoke to Andrew Mold, Acting Director at UNECA on challenges of the EAC's journey.“

TV Interview with Managing Editor Professor Tobias Knedlik: “EAC deliberate on challenges, solutions to monetary union”

Fri, 28 Oct 2016 14:44:28 GMT 9 views


Text from CNBC Africa: “The East African Community is edging closer to an economic union and policy makers are keen on evading mistakes of other regional blocs across the globe. CNBC Africa spoke to Professor Doctor Tobias Knedlik of Fulda University and began by asking him whether smaller economies relinquish their competitiveness amid the looming integration.“

Die Bremer Universität veröffentlichte aus Anlass des Launch-Events eine Pressemitteilung: Pressemitteilung Kigali

Weitere Infos zu den Afrika-Jahrbüchern und zum Launch-Event sind zu erhalten über:

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth
Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven
FB 7, Universität Bremen
Telefon: 218-66517
Email: wohlmuth@uni-bremen.de

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Launch of the Volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda: Editions “Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa” and “Towards New Trade and Investment Policies in Africa” are presented by UNECA

During a Launch Meeting at 25-27 October 2016 organized by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the University of Bremen (Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen) the volumes 18 (for 2015/16) and 19 (for 2017) of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (see the Flyers: PDF Wohlmuth-Cover Band 18 and PDF ADPY-Cover Volume 19) were presented in the Kigali Convention Centre (KCC) to an audience of African and international experts. The participants, speakers and discussants were from Politics and Government in Rwanda, Central Bank of Rwanda, UN Agencies, Ambassadors from the East African Community to Rwanda, International and Local Media, Development Cooperation Agencies, and Universities. The three-days-programme started with a Press conference (Day 1), followed by the Launch Event and a Policy Dialogue (Day 2), and  a visit to the Universities (Day 3) to present the two editions of the Yearbook. The programme (see the original programme: PDF Programme Kigali 8-2016) was drafted by UNECA Director Andrew Mold, UNECA/Eastern Africa Office, Kigali and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen.

For the Press Conference on Day 1 of the Launch Meeting Press Releases were prepared (see PDF Press release Volume 18 and PDF Press Release Volume 19). Professor Wohlmuth submitted for Day 2 the Opening Speech (PDF Opening Speech Kigali) and a Presentation for the Launch Event on the Policy Implications and Policy Recommendations of the Yearbook editions and especially of Volumes 18 and 19 (see PDF Wohlmuth Panel Discussion 3). Further presentations for Day 2 were prepared by Professor Tobias Knedlik on “Lessons from Europa for the African Monetary Union” and by Dr. Nazar Hassan, UNESCO on “Highlights of Volume 20: STI Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa” (PDF Presentation Hassan STI Policy and PDF Synopsis Hassan Yearbook). Beside of discussing the themes of Volume 18 “Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa” and Volume 19 “Towards New Trade and Investment Policies in Africa” information was given on the highlights of forthcoming Volume 20 on “STI Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa”.

Day 2 started with Opening Remarks. In the Session on “Transformative Regional Integration in Eastern Africa” new developments in the East African Community (EAC) had an impact, just to mention the implications of the Brexit, the differences between members about the EPA negotiations, and the entry of South Sudan as a new member. The situation of the EAC after the Brexit vote in UK was of great interest for the participants from Rwanda and from the other countries of the EAC. Therefore, UNECA Director Andrew Mold gave an introductory presentation on “The implications of Brexit for the East African Community”, followed by the presentation of Professor Tobias Knedlik on the “Lessons from Europa for the African Monetary Union”. The most important issues and messages of Volume 18 on “Transformative Regional Integration in Africa” were then confronted with the current discussions in the EAC on the future of the relations between EAC and Europe after the Brexit. The discussion after these presentations about “Transformative Regional Integration in Africa” has invited remarks by Dr. Thomas Kigabo, Chief Economist at the National Bank of Rwanda. His contribution centred on the consequences of the Brexit vote for the EAC and the EPA negotiations. Because of differences among EAC member countries about the implications of the Brexit vote and with regard of the EPA agreement the directions of the integration process in the East African Community (EAC) are under review (see the link to the article by James Karuhanga about the speech of Dr. Kigabo: http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-10-27/204808/ ).

Day 2 was continued with the Session on “New Trade and Investment Policies in Eastern Africa”. UNECA Director Mold presented the main messages from his article in the Yearbook with the theme “Building Productive Capacities for Regional and Global Competitiveness: The Case of the East African Community”. Mr. Rodgers Mukwaya, Economic Affairs Officer, UNECA widened the picture by looking at “Patterns of African Regional Integration - The Tripartite and Continental Free Trade Areas”. The discussion on new trade and investment policies centred first, on ways and instruments of building productive capacities as prerequisites for regional and global competitiveness; and second, on opening regional economic communities (RECs) like EAC further towards tripartite and continental free trade areas. Rwanda is looking with great interest and ambition to such further steps of integrating regionally and globally. Emphasizing the case of the East African Community (EAC) was seen by the participants as a valuable application of the main messages from the presented Yearbook editions. Relevant issues of the two volumes were brought to the point by the speakers and discussants. A written statement was presented to the audience by Professor Reuben A. Alabi from Nigeria and currently being a Guest Researcher at the University in Bremen. His statement was about his contribution to Volume 19 in which he and the co-author had assessed the relevance of the “trade facilitation” and “aid for trade” tools for trade promotion of Sub-Saharan Africa (PDF Statement Professor Alabi). Nazar Hassan, Director, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), brought in the theme of “Innovation for Inclusive Growth in Africa”. Rwanda and other countries in the region see science, technology and innovation (STI) as key factors for a successful regional and global economic integration. It was argued that such a theme for the next volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is of utmost importance. Day 2 ended with Closing Remarks.

Day 3 of the Launch Event was used for Talks with Professors from Rwandan Universities on the issues of the two volumes, but also to discuss about university and research partnerships between Rwandan and German universities. There is great interest in Rwanda to cooperate with the Research Group on African Development Perspectives at the University of Bremen, according to Professor Tobias Knedlik, the Managing Editor of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Also UNECA expressed its interest to further cooperate with our universities and research groups.

Venue of the Launch Event: Kigali Convention Centre, Rwanda

UNECA has issued a statement on the event which is titled Collaboration, not competition, is key to a successful regional integration  (see the link: http://www.uneca.org/stories/collaboration-not-competition-key-successful-regional-integration ). The international press has taken up the issues (see the links for the report by AllAfrica: http://allafrica.com/stories/201610311186.html , and by TRALAC: https://www.tralac.org/news/article/10727-collaboration-key-to-successful-regional-integration-experts-say.html , and by BigNewsNetwork: http://www.dolphnsix.com/news/1645154/collaboration-competition-successful-regional-integration , and also by the major Rwandan daily journal The New Times under the title “Collaboration key to successful regional integration, experts say”: http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-10-27/204808/


In Television Interviews by CNBC Africa, which were broadcasted in 48 African countries, Professor Tobias Knedlik and Director Andrew Mold were interviewed on the importance of the issues discussed during the Launch Event for the policymakers in the East African Community (see the interview with Professor Tobias Knedlik in the video under: http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5188797459001 , and the interview with Director Andrew Mold in the video under: http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5187023778001 ).

Details from CNBC Africa about the Interviews during the Launch Event:
TV Interview with UNECA Director Andrew Mold: “EAC's challenges toward a Monetary Union”

Thu, 27 Oct 2016 10:10:51 GMT 8 views


Text from CNBC Africa: “As the East African Community gears to become a Monetary Union, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in partnership with the University of Bremen organised a Policy dialogue on regional integration aimed at drawing lessons from the experiences of other regional blocs. CNBC Africa spoke to Andrew Mold, Acting Director at UNECA on challenges of the EAC's journey.“


TV Interview with Managing Editor Professor Tobias Knedlik: “EAC deliberate on challenges, solutions to monetary union”

Fri, 28 Oct 2016 14:44:28 GMT 9 views


Text from CNBC Africa: “The East African Community is edging closer to an economic union and policy makers are keen on evading mistakes of other regional blocs across the globe. CNBC Africa spoke to Professor Doctor Tobias Knedlik of Fulda University and began by asking him whether smaller economies relinquish their competitiveness amid the looming integration.“


Statement by the University of Bremen: The University of Bremen released at  the occasion of the Launch Meeting in Kigali a Press Statement (see the PDF Pressemitteilung Kigali and the Link: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/vereinte-nationen-praesentieren-bremer-afrika-jahrbuecher-in-ruanda.html?cHash=f5d90784f2a1ed199696cbd8ab5f57d1 ). A full documentation about the Launch Meeting will be submitted by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Director, Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen.

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Spatial Development Matters for Inclusive Growth in Africa – A Keynote Lecture by Professor Karl Wohlmuth

University of Bremen Development Economist Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed to the International Conference of GARS (German Aviation Research Society) with a keynote lecture on spatial development and inclusive growth in Africa (see the PDF). The professor started with a discussion on Aviation in Africa and its role for Spatial Development, and then he considered the various elements of inclusive growth and especially the relevance of spatial development as a key factor. In this context he presented the ongoing controversy about the meaning of inclusive growth. In various country case studies he outlined how spatial development could contribute to more inclusive growth and development, for example if spatial interdependencies (South Sudan) and spatial dependencies (Nigeria) are considered. In order to make spatial planning an important element of inclusive growth, it has to be embedded into overall economic and social policies (as the country cases of South Africa, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and Uganda show). Obviously the importance of spatial development as a key component of inclusive growth had been neglected far too long in development studies. It is therefore very useful that GARS has devoted two sessions of the conference to such issues (see the programme: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf ).

“Aviation in Africa” & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop

In cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S. and the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, the Centre for Public Management (zep) of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen (HSB) hosted the First Workshop on Aviation in Africa and the Annual G.A.R.S. Student Research Workshop. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on "New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters" in the Session I "New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I" which took place on Thursday, June 30th 2016, 9:15 – 10:45, Venue: City University AS Bremen, Werderstraße 73. Professor Karl Wohlmuth also participated as a panellist in Session V: Panel Discussion: Air Transport and Inclusive Growth for Africa. The panellists were: Robert Kappel (GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg), Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, University of Bremen), Ken Button (George Mason University), and Nicole Adler (Hebrew University). The Panel was chaired by Ofelia Betancor, Universidad de Las Palmas. See the Programme Details for the two Sessions: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf). The Panel Discussion also came to the conclusion that Aviation in Africa can contribute to inclusive growth and development if the sector is organized and regulated in an appropriate manner – at national, regional and continental African levels..

Reference to the PDF and the Draft Paper: Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters, Contribution to: “Aviation in Africa” & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop, 30th June to 2nd July 2016, Bremen, Presentation on Thursday, June 29th 2016, in Session I: New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I, Workshop organized by the Centre for Public Management of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen in cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S., Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Presentation (see PDF) and Draft Paper, 8 pages (see Publications Wohlmuth).

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Internationale Konferenz über neue Industrialisierungsstrategien und inklusives Wachstum im Februar 2016 in Hammamet, Tunesien – Die Universität Bremen und die Hochschule Bremen setzen ihre Kooperation mit der Spitzenuniversität ENIT in Tunis fort

Acht Wissenschaftler der Universität Bremen und der Hochschule Bremen haben an einer vom tunesischen Kooperationspartner, der Spitzenuniversität ENIT, ausgerichteten Konferenz in Hammamet Vorträge gehalten. Die Konferenz hatte das Thema „Reindustrialisierung in Tunesien – Der Weg hin zu fairer und nachhaltiger Entwicklung und zu weiterer Demokratisierung“ und wurde von den deutschen und tunesischen Partnern gemeinsam geplant. Diskutiert wurden neue Industrialisierungskonzepte, die es Tunesien ermöglichen sollen, einerseits die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit seiner Industrien zu steigern und andererseits die Beschäftigung zu erhöhen. Die Arbeitslosigkeit, insbesondere auch von ausgebildeten Akademikern, ist in Tunesien sehr hoch (und sind faktisch weit höher als in den offiziellen Statistiken ausgewiesen). Effektivere Wachstums- und Beschäftigungspolitiken wurden diskutiert; diese sollen dazu beitragen, dass gleichzeitig ökonomische und soziale Ziele erreicht werden können. Zudem soll dadurch die weitere Demokratisierung in Tunesien abgesichert und verstärkt werden.

Die internationale Konferenz in Hammamet, Tunesien wurde von der tunesischen Wissenschaftsvereinigung TAASTI und vom DAAD gefördert

Zur bremischen Delegation gehörten die drei Wirtschaftsprofessoren der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven (Professor Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass von der Hochschule Bremen, Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg, und Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, FB 7, Universität Bremen). Die drei Professoren berichteten über neue Industrialisierungs- und Beschäftigungskonzepte für Tunesien sowie über Grundfragen der Förderung von Wissenschaft, Technologie und Innovation in nationalen Innovationssystemen und in industriellen Unternehmen. Das An-Institut BIBA war durch zwei Wissenschaftler vertreten (Dr. Marco Lewandowski, in Vertretung von Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus-Dieter Thoben, und Herr Zied Ghrairi, ein gebürtiger Tunesier). Die beiden Experten berichteten über Projekte des BIBA und über die Bedeutung von Industrie 4.0 für die zukünftige Kooperation der deutschen Industrie mit Tunesien. Der Leiter von UniTransfer/BRIDGE/Technologiepark Bremen, Herr Dr. Martin Heinlein, berichtete über die Erfahrungen in Bremen, einen Technologiepark im Umfeld und in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Bremen auf- und auszubauen. Dr.-Ing. Jens Hoheisel, Ko-Managing Direktor der Innowi GmbH, Bremen, erläuterte am bremischen Beispiel, wie Patente der bremischen Hochschulen möglichst effektiv kommerzialisiert werden können. Dr. Yildiray Ogurol, Geschäftsführer des ZMML (Zentrum für Multimedia in der Lehre) berichtete über die neue Rolle von Online-Kursen (MOOCs) für die Lehre in Deutschland und in Tunesien und für die Weiterbildung von Managern industrieller Unternehmen.

Podiumsdiskussion in Hammamet mit Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass und tunesischen Konferenzteilnehmern über die Bedeutung von Wissenschaft, Technologie und Innovation für die Reindustrialisierung in Tunesien

Auf tunesischer Seite waren an der Konferenz neben Professoren der ENIT und mehrerer tunesischer Universitäten Unternehmer, Vertreter von Ministerien, Mitarbeiter von Verbänden und Leiter von NGOs vertreten.
Teilgenommen haben auch Studierende und Dozenten des Studiengangs „Engineering and Technology Policy“ (ETP); an der Einrichtung dieses Studienganges an der ENIT in Tunis war die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven beratend beteiligt. Auch der tunesische Arbeitgeberverband UTICA, einer der vier Friedensnobelpreisträger des Jahres 2015,  war an der Konferenz mit Referenten beteiligt. Alle bei der Konferenz abgehandelten Themen stehen jetzt in Tunesien im Zentrum der Reformdiskussion, denn seit der Revolution des Jahres 2011 sind wohl politische Reformen erfolgt, doch die so dringlichen Wirtschafts- und Sozialreformen sind bisher unterblieben. Insbesondere gilt es in Tunesien, den De-Industrialisierungsprozess besser zu managen und durch pro-aktive Re-Industrialisierungsstrategien Beschäftigung zu schaffen, was angesichts der hohen Raten der Arbeitslosigkeit in Tunesien besonders wichtig ist. Ein Themenschwerpunkt bei der Konferenz war die Wissenschafts-, Technologie- und Innovationspolitik, denn die Reform des Nationalen Innovationssystems ist in Tunesien eine Voraussetzung dafür, dass die Industrie modernisiert werden kann. Zudem benötigen die tunesischen Unternehmen dringend qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte und Universitätsabsolventen, die es Tunesien ermöglichen sollen, seine Industrien effizienter in globale Wertschöpfungsketten zu integrieren. Die tunesischen Unternehmen brauchen auch Unterstützung bei F&E-Projekten, denn bislang gibt die öffentliche Forschung des Landes nur wenig Impulse für die Weiterentwicklung der industriellen Produktion (vgl. zum Programm der Konferenz die PDF ReindusConf-Booklet und zu den Abstracts der bremischen Delegation die PDF Wohlmuth Abstracts).

Im Anschluss an die  Konferenz war Professor Wohlmuth Gast beim Ersten Deutschen Forschungstag, der in Tunis vom DAAD ausgerichtet wurde. Etwa 100 tunesische Wissenschaftler wurden darüber informiert, wie bilaterale und multinationale Hochschulkooperationen initiiert, entwickelt und gemanagt werden können. An Beispielen wurde deutlich gemacht, wie tunesische, deutsche und drittstaatliche Universitäten aus Kooperationen möglichst große Vorteile ziehen können.

Professor Wohlmuth diskutierte in Tunis mit der Direktorin des DAAD und Kollegen aus Sousse und Kairo

Die tunesischen Teilnehmer am ersten Deutschen Forschungstag in Tunis waren Professoren und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter von tunesischen Universitäten und Forschungsinstituten

Professor Wohlmuth hatte in Tunis auch Treffen mit wichtigen Wirtschaftsberatern der tunesischen Regierung, mit Wirtschaftsprofessoren, mit Ministeriumsvertretern und mit Leitern von UN-Organisationen. Bei einem Expertentreffen im „Tunisian Institute for Competitiveness and Quantitative Studies/ITCEQ“ wurde über das Thema der „Wachstumsbarrieren in Tunesien“ diskutiert. Die Lage in Tunesien ist komplex und bedrohlich, weil bisher – fünf Jahre nach der Revolution vom 14. Januar 2011 -  Wirtschaftsreformen kaum durchgesetzt werden konnten. Eine fragile Regierungskoalition und schwache Institutionen verhindern Reformen und einen Wirtschaftsaufschwung. Umso wichtiger sind direkte Kontakte und Arbeitsprogramme zwischen tunesischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern. Die Kooperation von Bremen und Tunis im Rahmen der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven soll daher weiterentwickelt werden. So ist eine weitere Konferenz in Tunis über die Bedeutung der Innovationspolitik für die industrielle Entwicklung in Tunesien, Libyen und Algerien geplant. Tunesische Ökonomen werden auch am Band 20 des African Development Perspectives Yearbook zum Thema „Forschung, Technologie und Innnovation und inklusives Wachstum in Afrika“ mitarbeiten. Auch weitere Forschungsarbeiten im Zusammenhang mit der Erarbeitung einer „Nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie“ für Tunesien sind vorgesehen. Das BIBA und das ZMML beabsichtigen, im Rahmen von Erasmus Plus und anderen Förderprogrammen mit Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen der ENIT zu kooperieren.

Es ist perspektivisch für die bremischen Universitäten sehr sinnvoll, die bereits existierenden Kooperationen zwischen Universitäten in Bremen und Tunesien zukünftig besser zu koordinieren. Es gibt bereits zahlreiche Kooperationen zwischen bremischen und tunesischen universitären Projektgruppen; ein Erfahrungsaustausch unter den  Projektleitern könnte sicherlich allen Projekten nützen. Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird sich bemühen, einen Rahmen für die Kooperation vorzuschlagen.

Die meisten Präsentationen von der Konferenz in Hammamet und die Präsentation für den Deutschen Forschungstag in Tunis sind als PDFs in diesem Bericht verfügbar:

Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth in Hammamet über Re-Industrialisierungsstrategien: PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2
Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth in Hammamet über STI-Politik-Foren als Instrument für Tunesien: PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum Tunisia
Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth über multilaterale universitäre Kooperationen, Deutscher Forschungstag in Tunis: PDF Wohlmuth- German Research Day
Präsentation Marco Lewandowski: PDF Tunesien BIBA
Präsentation Marrtin Heinlein: PDF Präsentation Technologiepark
Präsentation Ghriari: PDF Tunisia BIBA
Präsentation: Jens Hoheisel: PDF InnoWI Tunisia
Präsentation Yildiray Ogurol: PDF mooc-presentation

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Reindustrialization of Tunisia: Towards equitable and sustainable development, and further democracy, Conference in Hammamet, 12-13 February 2016
The Conference on “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” in Hammamet, which was organized by our Tunisian partners ENIT and TAASTI in Tunis, was a success (see the Programme PDF ReindusConf-Booklet and the Abstracts PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts). The DAAD has financed the participation of eight researchers from Bremen, mainly from the University of Bremen. The theme of “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” was discussed by Tunisian and German economists. Also representatives of Tunisian Ministries, Employers Federations, Private Businesses and NGOs were invited as speakers. The whole conference was  recorded by the TAASTI team so as to have lecture material for the ETP Master course at ENIT in Tunis. As the employment situation is quite serious in Tunisia, especially so the situation of the youth and of the academic and vocational training graduates, the discussion about reindustrialization and employment generation options was timely.


The Conference Delegates Met at the Sentido Phenicia Hotel  in Hammamet, Tunisia


The Conference started with a panel discussion. The panellists, among them Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, discussed about the “Role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”. Professor Karl Wohlmuth emphasized ten key global industrial megatrends, as industrial development is shaped by strong global driving forces, such as digitalization, miniaturization, multi-faceted globalization, deeper forms of global value chain networking, intelligent (smart) specialization, use and spread of green technologies, industrial production through new technologies for saving resources, recycling and reusing materials, adapting to diversified and rapidly changing consumer preferences, and new forms of flexible production and labour use.


The Panellists discuss about the “Role of STI for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”


A representative from the Ministry of Industry spoke about new industrial policy initiatives in Tunisia. Although the Ministry of Industry has in some industrial policy areas a lead role, many other Ministries and Agencies have a say on industrial development. Therefore, Policy Forums were considered as important so as to address the inter-sectoral issues of Reindustrialization in Tunisia.


A presentation about the “Industrial Development Initiatives of the Tunisian Ministry of Industry”


The professors from the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen gave presentations on key Reindustrialization issues. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave two presentations. In the first presentation he discussed the causes of deindustrialization in Tunisia and the various options for reindustrialization; a new strategy for industrial development has to be based on pro-active STI policies (see the PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). In the second presentation Professor Wohlmuth made proposals for the establishment of STI Policy Forums for guiding the reindustrialization process in Tunisia (see the PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum).


Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation about “Deindustrialization and Reindustrialization in Tunisia”


Professor Karl Wohlmuth during his presentation about the “Role of STI Policy Forums in Tunisia”


Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass gave a presentation on “Strengthening the Role of Global Value Chains for a Successful Reindustrialization Process in Tunisia”; as Tunisia has lost in economic complexity in recent years; new approaches are needed to reverse this trend. Professor Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg/IWIM Bremen, spoke about “Financing Innovations in Tunisia and Germany”; as Tunisia has a financing gap in industrial innovations of the private sector, there is great interest in the modes how Germany is promoting innovation financing.


Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass spoke about the “Strategies to Strengthen the Integration of Tunisia into Global Industry Value Chains”



Professor Gutowski gave a presentation about “Financing Innovations in Germany and Tunisia”

All over the conference sessions there was a lively discussion. For the Master students of the ETP programme at ENIT in Tunis a Foresight Analysis course was held as a closing session of the conference (financed by DAAD). New instruments of foresight analyses were presented as well as results from foresight studies concerning future global industrial development patterns.

Towards a New Development Model for Tunisia – A Precondition for Reindustrialization

A major outcome of the conference in Hammamet was the insight that Tunisia has to overcome the development model inherited form Ben Ali so as to solve the major economic and social problems. Five years after the Revolution this task is not achieved. The Conference Lectures started with a speech by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, IWIM, University of Bremen, Germany. He introduced in his presentation the theme “Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and the Contribution of Coherent Industry and STI Policies: What are the Tasks ahead for Tunisia?”. In his presentation he considered key issues of Tunisia’s economic transformation process. The Tunisian Government is on the way to design a new development model so as to overcome the pre-revolution economic structures and modalities of policy-making (“Ben Ali legacy”). Based on the HRV (Hausmann/Rodrik/Velasco) decision tree to find out the most binding constraints to growth, the Tunisian government and international experts acknowledge that the “low appropriability” of the returns to private business activity is still the most important barrier causing low levels of investment and employment generation in the country.

As “low appropriability” of the returns to investment is caused by many factors (corruption, incoherent economic policies, confiscatory high levels of total tax rates, arbitrary administrative decision-making, lack of competition, advantages of political connectivity, privileges of state-owned enterprises, delays in implementing reforms, and excessive costs of regulation due to oversized bureaucratic structures, etc.), the task of establishing a new development model is extremely complex. Other factors retarding growth are also considered, such as human capital, infrastructure, innovation, finance, macro and micro risks, but these factors are not considered as binding as the “low appropriability” of private returns to investment factor is. On this basis Professor Karl Wohlmuth discussed the deindustrialization process of Tunisia and the options for reindustrialization, reflecting also on the role of pro-active STI policies for Tunisia  (see the full text of synopsis in PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts and Presentation PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). Although there is an ongoing debate on economic reforms in Tunisia, it is necessary to shorten drastically the extremely long implementation cycle of reform laws from Ministries to Cabinet and Parliament and then back to the Ministries and Implementation Agencies. While the reforms of the Investment Code have started already in 2009 (before the Revolution), up to now only drafts are ready at Ministerial Level, but no decision was made in Cabinet and no parliamentary debate has taken place about an approved draft. Old laws, regulations and procedures prevail.
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