Economic Policies in Sudan

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African Development Perspectives Yearbook – Immediate release by the publisher of Volume 23 on “Digital Transformation and New Business Opportunities in Africa”, and intensive work by the various research teams on Volume 24 with the theme “Strengthening Fiscal Capacity and Using New Strategies and Tools for Domestic Resource Mobilization in Africa”

Good news from the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen. Volume 23 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the theme “Business Opportunities, Start-ups and Digital Transformation in Africa” was now released by LIT Publisher (see the link to the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook: This edition contains a Unit on Digital Transformation, Digital Entrepreneurship, and Digital Business Opportunities in Africa – General Issues, a Unit on New Business Opportunities created by the Digital Transformation in West Africa, a Unit on Digital Transformation in South Africa with Examples from the Free State, and a Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes. While volume 24 is more focussed on the macroeconomic policy side of African countries, the volume 23 is related to microeconomic issues in African countries, especially digital entrepreneurship. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook was transformed some time ago to an open access edition and to a fully peer-reviewed publication. It is considered as the leading English-language annual on Africa in Germany. LIT Publisher intends to launch the book at the ninth ECAS (European Conference On African Studies) meeting in Cologne on African Futures, held at 31 May – 3 June 2023. The Book Exhibit at ECAS Cologne 2023 has the link: It is interesting to note that prior to the volume 23 on Digital Entrepreneurship the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen has published two volumes of the Yearbook on topics of entrepreneurship and private sector development in Africa: Vol. 9 (2002/2003): African Entrepreneurship and Private Sector Development, and Vol. 10 (2004): Private and Public Sectors: Towards a Balance. These two volumes were well received and led to important policy discussions. The Festschrift for the African Development Perspectives Yearbook contains a lot of additional information about the philosophy and the working modalities of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives; see the link:, and for the direct download:

The publishing work for the African Development Perspectives Yearbook goes on. The editors of Volume 24 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook could close successfully the Call for Papers for this new publication project. Guest Editors and Authors submitted their Proposals and Abstracts on the theme “Strengthening the Fiscal Capacity and Using new Tools and Strategies for Domestic Resource Mobilization of African Countries”. After a rigorous selection of submissions we have secured now enough material to publish a Unit on General Issues of Fiscal Capacity, a Unit on Comparative Analyses of Fiscal Capacity for Selected African Countries, Units on the Fiscal Capacity and Resource Mobilization in Senegal and in Sudan, and a Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes. We will then have five Units in volume 24 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, guided by Guest Editors and the Editorial Staff:
Unit 1: General Issues on Fiscal Capacity and Fiscal Policy in Africa (Unit Editors: Guest Editor/Karl Wohlmuth)
Unit 2: Country Case Studies on Fiscal Capacity and Resource Mobilization in Africa (Guest Editor/Karl Wohlmuth)
Unit 3: Fiscal Capacity and Resource Mobilization in Senegal (Guest Editors)
Unit 4: Fiscal Capacity and Resource Mobilization in Sudan (Samia Nour/Karl Wohlmuth)
Unit 5: Reviews and Book Notes (Samia Nour/Karl Wohlmuth)
The research teams for the Units and Contributions are now working on their first drafts. The first draft and then the final draft will be peer-reviewed and assessed if suitable for the new African Development Perspectives Yearbook volume. The basic idea behind the theme is to investigate the constraints of domestic resource mobilization in times of multiple crises in Africa, because of the climate crisis, the Corona crisis, the crisis caused by the Russian war of aggression against the Ukraine, the global food and energy crises, the crises of global inflation and slowing growth, and the many other crises because of natural disasters and catastrophes. In times of a transition to a new world order since the Joint Declaration of China and Russia on February 4, 2022, there is a vital need to look deeply at the domestic base of fiscal resources and to assess carefully if it is sustainable, expandable, and manageable along the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the Global Agenda 2030.

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Advising on African and Global Studies: Evaluation Activities, New Working Papers and Blogs, Yearbook Publications, Attending Virtual Conferences, and New Co-operation Agreements
In recent months, Professor Karl Wohlmuth was busy in various directions. He did various evaluations of research proposals, applications for fellowships and for post-doc positions, but also for the selection and promotion to full and associate professorships. He did such an evaluation work for universities in Kuwait, for the Global New York University Network New York/Abu Dhabi and Shanghai, and for universities in Senegal (like the University of Dakar/UCAD). He was also invited to evaluate for the PRIME Programme (Postdoctoral Researchers International Mobility Experience) of DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst). He did as well evaluation work for the British Council Climate Connection Research Fellowships Programme. Also the KAAD (Katholischer Akademischer Ausländerdienst) asked Professor Karl Wohlmuth to supervise an African PhD student. Professor Karl Wohlmuth was again invited to evaluate proposals for the Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowships for Experienced Researchers. An interesting concept as submitted was on the Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) to connect with the European Energy/Gas system. This pipeline project, also named NIGAL (Nigeria/Algeria), became so important after the February 24, 2022 invasion of Russia into the Ukraine. It is worth to be investigated further, although there are so many risks involved with such projects in the Sahel region.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has published an essay on the Russian War of Aggression against the Ukraine and on the implications for the world economy and the world order. In five parts key issues are discussed: the role of innovative sanctions coalitions against Russia; the financing of the Russian war via illegal transnational non-state actors, like the Wagner Group which is operating in resource-rich African countries and fighting in the Donbass region of Ukraine; the impacts of the war on the global political economy and for the establishment of a new world order; three groups of action programmes to control the illegal transnational non-state actors, to compensate the Global South for the collateral damages of the war, and to address the severe losses for the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs) due to the war; finally, the impacts of the war and of the Joint Declaration of Russia and China from February 4, 2022 on a new world order are assessed, with a focus on Germany and Europe in regard of the “Zeitenwende”. Also, a blog was published in various versions to look at the role of the Wagner Group in resource-rich African countries, and their tools for the illegal financing of the Russian war in the Ukraine via gold exports from Sudan to fill the foreign exchange reserves of Russia.

The recent research activities on Sudan and South Sudan should be mentioned. The two country-information essays by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on “Sudan” and “South Sudan” which are published in a Handbook on the Near East and Northern Africa were well received by the readers. These are essays which focus on various dimensions (history, economy, society, politics, culture, governance, and the international relations) of the two countries. On Sudan, Professors Karl Wohlmuth and Samia Mohamed Nour have jointly started a research cooperation on the “New Macroeconomics for Sudan in Times of Global Multiple Crises” towards a Unit on Sudan’s economy for the next volume 24 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. This research will be part of the volume 24 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with a focus on “Strengthening the Fiscal Capacity of African Countries”. Professor Samia Nour has reported for the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) of IWIM about her immense research activities on Sudan and the Arab world. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has considered the case of Sudan also in his new working papers and blogs about the Russian War of Aggression against the Ukraine; military and militia leaders of Sudan have exchanged domestically mined gold for weapons and support from the Wagner Group to consolidate their autocratic regime after the coup of October 2021 against the civil side of the government. The blog by Karl Wohlmuth on “Putin, the Wagner Group, the gold of Sudan, and the sanctions on Russia” has received great interest; many colleagues from universities and institutes, such as from the LMU Munich, responded with deep comments and interesting questions, and gave recommendations for further research work.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited under the “Indo-German Joint Research Collaboration” for a research and teaching visit to the Central University of Punjab, India. Professor Wohlmuth is planning a cooperation with researchers from Indian universities for a further volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the theme “Africa’s Development and the Transitions in the Global South”. A cooperation with Dr. Aydin Findikci, a lecturer in Munich and former student from Bremen University, is intended to publish a report on the “Economic Policies and Strategies for Turkey of the Recep Tayyip Erdogan Autocratic Government”.  Professor Karl Wohlmuth was nominated in 2022 by the Falling Walls Foundation Breakthrough of the Year programme which is managed by the Falling Walls Foundation in Berlin. Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited by Professor Dr. Jutta Günther to attend her Inauguration Meeting to take over the position of a University President (Rektorin) of the University of Bremen on September 6, 2022 at 18:00 pm. Professor Dr. Jutta Günther is working towards the establishment of the University of Bremen as a “Climate University”. As climate policy action is a focus of research in most of the faculties, there is a huge potential for interdisciplinary work. This work is a basic principle since the start of the University of Bremen in 1971. Political representatives from the Freie Hansestadt Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen) attended the inauguration. The Keynote Lecture was therefore on the theme “Global Value Chains and Climate Change”. In an Open Letter on Science Cooperation seventy (70) experts doing researches in cooperation with partners in the Global South (also Professor Karl Wohlmuth) have requested new forms of science cooperation between German funding institutions, the German research partners, and the researchers/research institutes in the Global South. Too often the science cooperation with the Global South is limited by bureaucratic requirements and legal constraints, and also by the lack of direct funding of researchers/research institutions in the Global South. As  Professor Karl Wohlmuth had a lot of such cooperations with research institutions in Africa, supported by DFG, DAAD, FES, Federal and State Ministries, Peace Foundations, Volkswagen Foundation and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, he shares the critical views in the Open Letter and thinks that it is necessary to reflect continually on the forms and modalities for an innovative scientific cooperation with research institutions and researchers in the Global South. The Open Letter seems now to get something moving in Germany.

Attending Virtual Conferences – On the Russian War of Aggression against the Ukraine, on Climate Change and Adaptation, on Key Technologies, and on Transition and Development Issues: Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited to various virtual conferences by the OECD Berlin Centre (on topics such as climate policy, employment in Central and Eastern Europe, key technologies in Germany and Europe, trade as a driver for resilient and sustainable supply chains, trade policy in challenging times, industrial subsidies and levelling the playing field, and skills shortages and real wages under pressure), by the wiiw/Wiener Institute für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche (on topics such as developments in Central and Eastern Europe), by the Life & Peace Institute/LPI (on issues such as the impacts of the African Continental Free Trade Area/AfCFTA on the Horn of Africa), by the BEN/Bremer entwicklungspolitisches Netzwerk e. V. (on topics such as choosing of producing feed or food), by the HWWI/Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (on issues such as structural change and sustainability in the context of crises in Northern Germany and the prospects of the world economy in 2023),  by the organizers of the Godley-Tobin Memorial Lecture given by Paul Krugman (on The enduring relevance of Tobinomics), by the Instituto Cervantes (on hopes for a better future of Nicaragua), by the Schader-Stiftung: Darmstädter Tage der Transformation 2022 (on the Socio-economic transformation of our society towards sustainable development),  by the FES (on topics such as taxes in times of crises, policies against the global inflation, and on global supply chain issues), and by the DIE/IDOS, and the DIE/IfW (with topics such as up-scaling co-benefits of sustainable consumption for development, charting a roadmap towards deep decarbonization, and Africa’s regional and global integration, with lessons from the past and implications for the future). Especially important were the many conferences by the OECD Berlin Centre on the Russian War against the Ukraine, to look carefully at the economic consequences for Europe and the World Economy, at the impact of the sanctions on the growth of Russia and the world economy, at the overall growth, social and environment effects of the war, at the effects of the refugees moving from Ukraine to Western Europe, at the military and economic developments in the whole NATO area, and at the perspectives of the new world order after the end of the war. Very relevant to our researches and timely was the invitation by the Schader Foundation to take part at the Schader-Forum “Energiepolitik in Zeiten des Krieges” (Energy Policy in Times of War) on October 28, 2022 in Darmstadt.

The editors of Volume 24 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook could close successfully the Call for Papers. Guest Editors and Authors submitted their Proposals and Abstracts on the theme “Strengthening the Fiscal Capacity of African Countries”. After a rigorous selection of submissions we have now enough material to publish a Unit on General Issues, a Unit on Comparative Analyses of selected African Countries, Units on Senegal and on Sudan, and a Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes. The research themes are now working on their first drafts. The first draft and the final draft will then be reviewed and assessed if suitable for the new Yearbook volume. Meanwhile volume 23 with the theme “Business Opportunities, Start-ups and Digital Transformation in Africa” is published. This edition contains a Unit on Digital Transformation, Digital Entrepreneurship, and Digital Business Opportunities in Africa – General Issues, a Unit on New Business Opportunities created by the Digital Transformation in West Africa, a Unit on Digital Transformation in South Africa with Examples from the Free State, and a Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes. While volume 24 is more focussed on the macroeconomic policy side of African countries, the volume 23 is related more to microeconomic issues in African countries. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook was transformed some time ago to an open access edition and to a fully peer-reviewed publication. It is considered as the leading English-language annual on Africa in Germany.
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New Research Activities on Sudan and South Sudan
The Russian War of Aggression against the Ukraine, the Wagner Group, and the Gold smuggled massively out of Sudan – Researches by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on the role of the Wagner Group in Sudan, in other African and Emerging Countries, and in the Ukraine

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has published a working paper on the Russian war of aggression against the Ukraine and its impacts on sanctions policies of the West, on the economic effects of the war and of the sanctions on the Ukraine and on Russia, on the emergence of private non-state actors (NSAs) at global scale, on the collateral damages in the Global South through the war, and on the effects of the war on the realization of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the Global Agenda 2030. The new working paper was published as the number 130 of the Blue Series Discussion Papers of IWIM, and it has a country focus on Sudan as a case study for the role of the Russian Wagner Group in smuggling out the gold mined in the country (see for the number 130 of the “Berichte aus dem Weltwirtschaftlichen Colloquium der Universität Bremen”: Professor Karl Wohlmuth has also written a Blog on the activities of the Wagner Group in Sudan since 2017 (see for a download: After the Coup of the military and militia commanders of Sudan in October 2021 with the removal of the civil society part of the transitional joint civil-military government, the international community has tried to support the reinstallation of a civilian government in Sudan. There was only a partial success of these efforts up to now, although in December 2022 the military/militia side has agreed to a Framework Agreement to support steps towards a return of a civilian government in Sudan. The recent United Nations Security Council Meeting Report by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) has however highlighted that still some severe obstacles remain to be solved along the path of the Framework Agreement. It is mainly the security sector reform that is an obstacle towards the implementation of the political transition to a civilian government in Sudan (see the latest UN Security Council Meeting Report on Sudan:

Russia and the Wagner Group are still active in Sudan and support the military side, the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF),  and the militia side, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). As the commanders of these troops are controlling most of the economic sectors in Sudan (manufacturing, mining, trade and other services, commercial agriculture, and land and real estate businesses), a true security sector reform would require a complete removal of these forces from their controlling positions of all these economic sectors. This process is still not in sight (see the analysis of the “Sudanese Revolution” of April 2019 and the implications of the “deep state” in Sudan by Professor Karl Wohlmuth: The obstacles for a democratic control of the economic sectors in Sudan were discussed in a lecture by Professor Karl Wohlmuth (see:  The next few months up to June 2023 may be important for the Framework Agreement to be accepted or rejected for implementation. Linked to the Framework Agreement is also the Juba Peace Agreement (the agreement of the transitional government of Sudan with various rebel movements in Darfur states, South Kordofan state, Blue Nile state, and in Eastern parts of Sudan); so, the Juba Peace Agreement is also at stake as the rebel movements claim participation rights in their local areas. We find various informed reports on the implementation of the Framework Agreement (in africanews:; by the European Union Delegation to the Republic of the Sudan:; by the Crisis Group:; and by VOA (Voice of America) News: The official spokesman of the Sudanese civil society part of the Framework Agreement outlines the tasks ahead, such as holding conferences to work on constitutional and transitional documents, but there are many civil society groups and individuals in Sudan who are sceptical that the other side on the table will never give up their economic positions and the military power. So, sanctions against the SAF/RSF military groups from Western powers remain still valid as they were since years.

Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding in Sudan – A Panel Discussion by the Life & Peace Institute (LPI) on March 14, 2023
Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited by LPI to a panel discussion on “Exploring Transitional Justice (TJ) and Peacebuilding in Sudan” (see on the conference programme: PDF Programme Agenda - Panel Discussion onTJ, and on the Biography of the  Panellists: PDF Biography of Panel Speakers). The panel discussion presented, according to LPI, the most current evidence and knowledge on the relationship between TJ and peacebuilding; it examined the existing local methods of dispute resolution and reconciliation in Sudan; and it discussed the roles of different actors, including civil society, and their role in supporting the development and implementation of context-specific TJ processes in Sudan. The Life & Peace Institute (see the website about their activities: is based in Uppsala, Sweden and aims at awareness-raising, information,  policy engagement, and research work on the Horn of Africa (covered in a broader definition, including also Sudan and South Sudan). The LPI has a strategic plan for their work (see about the three strategic pillars : The three strategic pillars are: Inclusive engagement for peace (Strategic Pillar 1), Policy engagement and awareness-raising (Strategic Pillar 2), and Collaborative learning to enhance practice and policy (Strategic Pillar 3). Professor Karl Wohlmuth is since years collaborating with the LPI on Sudan.

Cooperation with Professor Samia Mohamed Nour from the University of Khartoum -

On Research Projects and with the Editorial Group of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook

Very intensive is the cooperation with Professor Samia Mohamed Nour from the University of Khartoum. She reported again a great number of research projects and publications and works with the editorial group of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on volume 24 (2024/2025) to submit to the theme of the volume on “Fiscal Capacity and Resource Mobilization in Africa – New Strategies and New Instruments” a full Unit on “New Macroeconomic Policies in Sudan in times of Multiple Crises”; focus is on the macroeconomic implications of the Post-COVID-19 situation, the Climate Crisis, the Collateral Damages of the Russian War against the Ukraine, the Global Energy and Food Crises, and the Global Inflation. She is also doing since many years her great job as the Editor for Book Reviews and Book Notes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. She joined the Editorial Group when working with us on Volume 20 (2018) of the Yearbook with the theme "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – General Issues and Country Cases". Volume 24 is now on the theme of identifying, measuring, strengthening, and mobilizing the fiscal capacity of the African countries through deep policy reforms. Professor Karl Wohlmuth and Professor Samia Mohamed Nour are the two editors of the Unit on Sudan; they will cooperate with leading Sudanese researchers on writing key essays about the new macroeconomic policies in Sudan to mobilize the fiscal resources at central, provincial, and local levels which are needed for development in times of multiple crises.

Professor Samia Mohamed Nour reported in February 2023 about her recent Research Activities:

  1. Nour, Samia (2023), Economic Consultant and Project Leader for the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH/German Agency for International Cooperation GmbH, GIZ Research Project on ‘Employment and Labour Market Analysis (ELMA) in Sudan’, November 2022 - May 2023.
  2. Nour, Samia (2023), “Issues of inclusion and capabilities for establishing the knowledge societies and the potential role of open science in the Arab States”, A Consultancy Research Report prepared for the United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UNESCO Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States, Cairo, Egypt, July 2021 – November 2021, Forthcoming 2023.
  3. Nour, Samia (2023), “Innovation and Technological Aspects in the Islamic World”, Chapter 3 in ICESCO Consultancy Research Report: “The Possible Futures of the Islamic World in the fields of Education, Sciences, Culture and Technologies”, Islamic World Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ICESCO), headquartered in Rabat, Morocco, April – November 2021, Forthcoming 2023.
  4. Nour, Samia (2022), ‘The Impact of COVID-19 on Households and Firms in the MENA Region: the case of Sudan,’ Agence Française de Développement (AFD), Research Paper No 250, Agence Française de Développement (AFD), Paris, France, May 2022, pp. 1-60. Link:
  5. Nour, Samia (2022), “South-South Ideas paper on Digital Transformation: South-South Cooperation, Technology and Digital Transformation: the case of Arab Countries”, United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, USA, September 13, 2022, pp.1-68. Link:; this is a Research Project in collaboration with the Economic Research Forum (ERF) for the Arab countries and Turkey, the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with the title: “South-South Global Thinkers – A Global Coalition of Think Tank Networks for South-South Cooperation (SSC)”, July 2021- July 2022.
  6. Nour, Samia (2022),  ‘The Impact of COVID-19 on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Labour Market: The Case of Sudan’, Economic Research Forum (ERF) for the Arab countries and Turkey, Policy Brief Number PB 87, pp. 1-11, August 2022, ERF, Cairo, Egypt; Link:
  7. Nour, Samia (2022), ‘The Impact of Covid-19 on the Labour Market in Sudan’, The Forum: ERF Policy Portal. October 25, 2022. Link:
  8. Krafft, Caroline, Nour, Samia, and Mahjoub, Ebaidalla (2022), ‘‘Jobs and Growth in North Africa in the COVID-19 Era: the case of Sudan 2018-2021”, The Forum: ERF Policy Portal. 7 November 2022, Link:
  9. ERF- ILO First Report on Jobs and Growth in North Africa (2021); the report was edited by Prof. Ragui and other colleagues; the project was supported by the International Labour Office (ILO) and the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA); Professor Nour was pleased to contribute as a co-author to the Sudan Country Chapter.  Link:
  10. ERF- ILO Second Regional Report on Jobs and Growth in North Africa (2022); the report was edited by Prof. Ragui and other colleagues; the project was supported by the International Labour Office (ILO) and the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA); Professor Nour was pleased to contribute as the co-author of Sudan Country Chapter).

Important Conferences and Contributions by Professor Samia Mohamed Nour:

She also reported about her participation at the UNECA conference in Marrakech, Morocco (November 1-2, 2022).  The ECA Sub-Regional Office for North Africa (SRO-NA) and the ECA Sub-Regional Office for West Africa (SRO-WA) were thankful for her participation in the expert meeting on the theme: "Resilience to crises and sustainability of development in North and West Africa", a conference that was held at the "Four Seasons Hotel" on November 1 and 2, 2022 in Marrakech (Kingdom of Morocco). There will be a report following from this event.

It was a great pleasure for her to participate as an invited Sudanese guest and speaker at the final symposium of the Resilience in Urban Sudan (RUS) research project that was held on 25 - 26 August 2022 at Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden. The RUS project is funded by the Swedish Research Council (SRC) under the Research Project Grant within Development Research. The Invitation to the Conference with the Call for Papers (PDF Malmö University) and the Programme of the Conference (PDF Programme RUS) are attached.

Great interest raised her ERF Policy Brief No. 87, August 2022 (PDF ERF Policy Brief ERF PB 87): “The Impact of Covid-19 on the MENA Labor Market: The Case of Sudan”. It is based on the attached AFD Research Paper (PDF AFD-ERF - Research Paper) entitled ‘The Impact of COVID-19 on Households and Firms in the MENA Region: the case of Sudan’. This paper was conducted in the context of the research project of the Economic Research Forum (ERF) under the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) Programme titled: “The Impact of COVID-19 on Households and Firms in the MENA Region: the case of Sudan”, Number 250, May 2022. The research project was fully supported by a research grant in cooperation with the ERF (Cairo, Egypt) and the Agence Française de Développement (AFD, Paris, France).  

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China und Russland: Die „Joint Declaration“ vom 4. Februar 2022, der Krieg gegen die Ukraine und die neue Weltordnung

In einem neuen Working Paper (Berichte aus dem Weltwirtschaftlichen Colloquium der Universität Bremen, Nummer 130, März 2023: PDF Working Paper 130) geht es um die Folgen des Krieges gegen die Ukraine für die Weltwirtschaft und für die zukünftige Weltordnung. Offensichtlich streben China und Russland eine neue Weltordnung an, die in der „Joint Declaration“ auch schon skizziert wird. Die Diskussion über den Aggressionskrieg gegen die Ukraine muss daher sehr viel breiter geführt werden. Es wird nicht reichen, die Fehler des Westens in der bisherigen Reaktion auf den russischen Angriffskrieg zu dokumentieren; es geht schlicht um eine massive Unterstützung der Ukraine, um deren Existenz langfristig und nachhaltig zu sichern. Es geht nicht mehr darum, ob notwendige Finanzierungen und Waffenhilfen für die Ukraine zu spät erfolgt sind oder zu gering ausgefallen sind. Von entscheidender Bedeutung wird sein, wie lange der Krieg gegen die Ukraine noch dauern wird, welche Eskalationsstufen noch zu erwarten sind, und welche Machtverschiebungen sich noch zeigen werden. Erkennbar ist, dass die neue globale Politik von China und Russland, die im “Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China on the International Relations Entering a New Era and the Global Sustainable Development” am 4. Februar 2022 vereinbart wurde, vom Westen und insbesondere auch von Deutschland noch nicht ernst genug genommen wird. Die „Joint Declaration“ ist ein Dokument, das für die neue Weltordnung von bestimmender Bedeutung sein wird (vgl.: PDF Joint Declaration). Es zeigt sich deutlich, dass die beiden Mächte in der „Joint Declaration“ jene Interessensfelder und Machtsphären abgestimmt haben, die ihre globalen Ziele langfristig stützen können. Ein genaues Studium des Textes zeigt, dass die beiden Mächte exakt nach den Leitlinien und Grundsätzen, die am 4. Februar 2022 festgehalten wurden, agieren. Es geht also nicht nur darum, ob die Ukraine siegt oder verliert, ob Russland seine Kriegsziele erreicht oder nicht erreicht, sondern es geht um das neue globale Gesamtsystem, das dem Westen mit sehr hohen zu erwartenden Kosten und Risiken aufgebürdet wird. Enorme zusätzliche militärische Sicherheitsaufwendungen, hohe ökologische Lasten und bedeutsame ökonomische Umlenkungskosten werden zu tragen sein, bzw. werden zu politischen Prozessen von großer Sprengkraft in allen Regionen des Westens führen. Im „Joint Statement“ wird sehr deutlich festgeschrieben, dass eine langfristig angelegte Kooperation zwischen China und Russland „ohne Grenzen“ und „ohne verbotene“ Kooperationsfelder vorgesehen ist. Festgeschrieben wird auch die Führungsrolle der beiden Länder in der BRICS-Gruppe und in der SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)-Gruppe, aber erwähnt wird auch eine umfassende Kooperation, teilweise auch im militärischen Bereich, mit den ASEAN-Staaten, den G20-Staaten und den APEC-Staaten. Die Dominanz der USA im Rahmen der G7-Gruppe, der NATO und der AUKUS-Gruppe wird als besondere Gefahr gesehen; betont wird implizite, aber deutlich, dass für Russland und China in Europa ein großer Handlungsbedarf im Militär- und Sicherheitsbereich besteht. Die EU findet in dem Dokument als relevanter Akteur keine Erwähnung; dies kann als Hinweis gesehen werden, dass die Zerstörung der EU als politischer Akteur ein erklärtes Ziel der beiden Mächte ist. Die Sicherheitsinteressen Russlands in Europa werden besonders stark betont; bedeutsam ist auch der Hinweis, dass die Ergebnisse des Zweiten Weltkriegs nicht verändert und historische Lehren aus dem Krieg nicht übersehen werden dürfen. Eine Zukunft für die Ukraine in der EU wird nicht gesehen; eine Dominanz von Deutschland in der EU wird nicht gewünscht.

Das neue Working Paper von Professor Karl Wohlmuth geht in fünf Schritten auf die Folgen und Besonderheiten des russischen Aggressionskrieges gegen die Ukraine ein. Zunächst werden im ersten Abschnitt die neuen Formen und Wirkungen der Sanktionspolitik des Westens erläutert; dann geht es im zweiten Abschnitt um die neuen Strategien Russlands, über nichtstaatliche Akteure, wie die Wagner-Gruppe, etwa durch den Goldschmuggel aus dem Sudan und durch andere illegale Schritte und Transaktionen, die Sanktionspolitik des Westens zu umgehen. In einem dritten Abschnitt wird auf die Folgen des Krieges für Europa, die Ukraine und Russland eingegangen, aber auch auf die neue globale Sicherheitsarchitektur, die erforderlich ist. Im nachfolgenden vierten Abschnitt werden auf drei Ebenen globale Aktionsprogramme skizziert, die dringend notwendig werden, um die illegalen bzw. illegitimen Transaktionen von nichtstaatlichen Akteuren zu überwachen, um die Kollateralschäden des Krieges im Globalen Süden zu verringern, und um die Folgen des Krieges für die 17 Nachhaltigkeitsziele zu erfassen. In einem fünften und letzten Abschnitt wird auf die Auswirkungen des Krieges für Europa und für das Politik- und Wirtschaftsmodell Deutschlands eingegangen.


Für das Politik- und Wirtschaftsmodell Deutschlands ergeben sich die größten Herausforderungen. Die dreifache Abhängigkeit (Sicherheit: USA; Energie: Russland, Märkte: China) wird mit sehr hohen Umsteuerungskosten verbunden sein; von zentraler Bedeutung wird dabei immer die europäische Perspektive bleiben. Europa soll im Sinne des „Joint Statements“ wohl zwischen den drei globalen Mächten (USA, China/Russland) neutralisiert werden. Ein finanziell überfordertes und dadurch geschwächtes Deutschland könnte dabei China und Russland bei der Realisierung ihrer Ziele helfen. Die Gefahr eines Langzeitkonfliktes, mit wachsenden Staatsausgaben Deutschlands für die heimische Rüstung, mit hohen Ausgaben für die Unterstützung der Ukraine, und mit steigenden Belastungen für Aktionsprogramme zur Förderung des Globalen Südens, ist sehr real. Die Belastungen der Bürger werden dann zu erheblichen innerstaatlichen Konflikten in Deutschland und zu Verteilungskämpfen innerhalb von Europa führen. Es ist notwendig, die Bürger in Deutschland und in Europa auf diese Szenarien vorzubereiten. Die wissenschaftlichen Forschungen zur Beendigung von Konflikten und Kriegen zeigen, dass ein Langzeitkonflikt das mit Abstand wahrscheinlichste Szenarium ist, mit dem nun in Europa zu rechnen ist. Die Implikationen eines solchen Langzeitkonfliktes für Deutschland und Europa zu diskutieren und politische Schlussfolgerungen zu ziehen, das ist eine komplexe, aber auch eine dringend notwendige politische Aufgabe. Viel Zeit bleibt nicht, um Deutschland und Europa resilienter zu machen. Unwägbarkeiten der Entwicklungen in den USA, in China und in Russland erfordern einen umfassenden Politikansatz - Jetzt.

Der Autor, Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth von der Universität Bremen, ist an Kommentaren zu dem Essay sehr interessiert.

Bibliographische Hinweise:
Berichte aus dem Weltwirtschaftlichen Colloquium der Universität Bremen
Nr. 130, Wohlmuth, Karl:
Der russische Angriffskrieg gegen die Ukraine und die Perspektiven der Weltwirtschaft – Sanktionen, Nicht-staatliche Akteure, Kollateralschäden und die Nachhaltigkeitsziele im internationalen System,
März 2023; 11 Seiten als englischsprachige Einführung und Zusammenfassung und 59 Seiten als deutschsprachiger Haupttext.
Download über den Link:

Vgl. auch den Blog des Autors zu dem Thema der Aktivitäten nicht-staatlicher Akteure im Ukraine-Krieg:

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A New Working Paper on the Russian War of Aggression against Ukraine and the Consequences for Germany, Europe and the World Order

In a new working paper Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen adds to the great number of new reports to assess the consequences of the Russian war of aggression against the Ukraine for the world economy and the world order (the report is available for a download through the PDF). It is part of the Discussion Paper Series of the World Economics Colloquium of the IWIM (Institute for World Economics and International Management). Various versions will be published in other publication series. Comments on the Discussion Paper Number 130 are invited by the author. The report contains a shorter English version (summarising the main issues and recommendations) and a longer German version (giving a lot more details on new strategies and instruments). Of related interest is the blog by Karl Wohlmuth about the conduct of operations by the Wagner Group in Sudan’s gold mining sector with the aim to counter the impacts of the Western sanctions on Russia (see the link to the blog:

This paper discusses the new forces at work about the conduct of the war of aggression of Russia against the sovereign country of Ukraine. The essay starts in a first section with a discussion on the sanctions imposed by the Western countries to react to the Russian war against the Ukraine; the impacts and the types of sanctions are considered. The new type of sanctions which are developed and imposed on Russia are analysed. The next section two analyses the role of the Russian Wagner Group as part of a strategy by the Kremlin to use informal military and financial networks for the financing of the war of aggression; the instruments to counter the sanctions of Western countries are exemplified by the plundering of gold which is mined in the Sudan. As also in other African countries the Wagner Group is acting similarly, the case study on Sudan outlines the great danger for the development of African states. In a third section the impacts of this type of war on the Ukraine, on Europe, and on the global order are presented. First, the prospects of the sanctions coalition of the West are considered and described as an innovative mechanism; then second,  the damages for the economy of the Ukraine and the plans for reparations and the economic reconstruction after the end of the war are envisaged; and third, the implications of the war for the global security system are highlighted. In a fourth section an Agenda for Global Action is presented. Three groups of action programmes are considered, by highlighting first the need to increase the surveillance and control of the “non-state actors” in the international system, like the Wagner Group; second, by investigating the collateral damages of the war of aggression on third countries and the global system; and third, by studying the impacts of the war on the “Global Agenda 2030”, because all the seventeen (17) sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected negatively. In a fifth and final section the implications of the “Joint Statement of China and Russia on the International Relations Entering a New Era from February 4, 2022” for the future of Germany and Europe are considered. As a long war in Europe is a real possibility, Germany and Europe will have to address its security objectives through a deep integration of the European Union, Uncertainties arising from the world powers (USA, China, and Russia) will force to immediate and strong action.

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Putin, die Sanktionen, und das Gold des Sudan: Wie informelle Netzwerke zur Finanzierung des Angriffskrieges gegen die Ukraine beitragen

In einem neuen Beitrag geht der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor und Sudanforscher auf die informellen Netzwerke ein, die  Putin nutzt, um die Goldreserven Russlands aufzustocken und so die Sanktionen des Westens zum Teil zu kompensieren (vgl. die PDF: Putin-Sanktionen-8-2022). Für die Entwicklungspolitik gegenüber Afrika ergeben sich wichtige Schlussfolgerungen, insbesondere auch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die Europäische Union. Der Weser-Kurier aus Bremen hat eine Kurzfassung der Studie in der Papierausgabe vom 28. August 2022 auf der Seite 2 mit dem Titel „Putin finanziert Kriege über informelle Netzwerke“ veröffentlicht. Eine Online-Veröffentlichung zu dem Thema erfolgte am 27. August 2022; Zugang unter dem Link:

Kurzfassung der wesentlichen Thesen:

Putin, die Sanktionen und das Gold Afrikas

Karl Wohlmuth, Universität Bremen

Der Angriffskrieg Russlands gegen die Ukraine dauert nun schon mehr als sechs Monate. Die Europäische Union ist dabei, ein siebentes Sanktionspaket zu schnüren. Doch Putin rühmt die Stärke der russischen Wirtschaft. Im Westen gibt es daher Zweifel an der Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen. Studien zeigen aber, dass Russland überaus wirksamen Sanktionen gegenübersteht. Der Propagandaapparat des Kremls zeichnet ein Bild der Wirtschaftsentwicklung, das durch umfassende Manipulation von Daten zustande kommt. Rosstat, die Statistikbehörde des Landes, wurde dem Propagandaapparat des Kremls eingegliedert. Daten über die Wirtschaftslage werden auf vielfältige Weise manipuliert, etwa durch Prognosen, die sich auf Ausgangsdaten aus den ersten Kriegstagen beziehen oder durch die selektive Präsentation von Datenreihen mit positiven Entwicklungstrends. Die sorgfältige Analyse der offiziellen Daten ergibt ein Bild, das bereits umfassende und auch unumkehrbare Wirkungen der Sanktionen zeigt.

Russland hat bereits wichtige Positionen auf den internationalen Rohstoffmärkten (vor allem bei Gas, Öl, und Kohle) verloren. Die Importabhängigkeit praktisch aller industrieller Wertschöpfungsketten von westlichen Inputs und Technologien bedeutet, dass die Produktionsverluste Russlands größer werden. Die Strategie der Importsubstitution ist schon gescheitert. Der Exodus von wesentlichen Teilen der russischen Produktionsbasis (Unternehmen, Kapital, und Talente) beschleunigt sich. Mehr als 1000 international operierende Unternehmen haben das Land verlassen. Die makroökonomische Politik kann weder die Inflationsbekämpfung noch die Strukturanpassung erreichen. Die Abkoppelung von den internationalen Finanzmärkten führt zu drastischen Veränderungen auf den heimischen Finanzmärkten, da eine lange Dauer des Krieges und eine stabile Sanktionsfront eingepreist werden. Die Sanktionspolitik des Westens ist effektiv, weil ein umfassender Strategieansatz dahintersteht. Expertengremien evaluieren die Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen.

Putin geht nicht von einem Zerbrechen des westlichen Sanktionssystems aus, sondern nutzt informelle Netzwerke, um seine Kriegsoperationen zu finanzieren. Kurz nach der Annexion der Krim im Jahr 2014 hat er den Sudan als „Schlüssel nach Afrika“ ausgemacht, um ein Netzwerk des Goldschmuggels zur Umgehung der Wirkung von Sanktionen zu etablieren. Diese Netzwerke sollen helfen, die Goldreserven der russischen Zentralbank aufzustocken. Die „Gruppe Wagner“, verharmlosend als privates Söldner- und Militärunternehmen bezeichnet, ist nunmehr in 23 afrikanischen Ländern aktiv. Die Gruppe hat die Funktion, Militärregime zu stabilisieren und lokale Armeen auszurüsten; als Gegenleistung werden Russland illegale Einnahmen aus der Überwachung von Bergbauaktivitäten und Anteile aus dem Schmuggel von hochwertigen Mineralien wie Gold zugesichert. Die „Gruppe Wagner“ hat im Sudan ein internationales Netz des Goldschmuggels etabliert; seit dem Putsch vom Oktober 2021 unterstützen die Spitzenmilitärs des Sudan ganz offen dieses „Geschäftsmodell“. Gold im Wert von Milliarden Dollars wird – vorbei an staatlichen sudanesischen Stellen und der Zentralbank - aus dem Land geschmuggelt. Dieses Geschäftsmodell wird auch in anderen afrikanischen Ländern praktiziert. Diese informellen Netzwerke sind für die Finanzierung des Ukrainekriegs und anderer Militäroperationen Russlands enorm wichtig geworden. Goldtransaktionen können durch Sanktionen wesentlich schwerer unterbunden werden. Die Sanktionen gegen die „Gruppe Wagner“ durch den Westen sind bisher wirkungslos geblieben.

Für eine neue globale Ordnung ergeben sich bedeutsame Herausforderungen. Bei drei Themen (Stabilisierung einer kooperativen und effektiven Sanktionspolitik bei Angriffskriegen, Ausgestaltung von Politiken für Reparationen und den Wiederaufbau zerstörter Regionen nach dem Ende von Angriffskriegen, Gestaltung einer neuen Sicherheitsarchitektur zur Verhinderung zukünftiger Angriffskriege und zur Vermeidung existenzieller globaler Gefährdungen) besteht offensichtlich ein immenser internationaler Handlungsbedarf. Der Weckruf des Aggressionskrieges von Russland gegen die Ukraine zeigt, dass neben der Klimakrise auch die Gefahren durch nichtprovozierte Angriffskriege neu zu bewerten sind, da die Existenz des Planeten Erde auf dem Spiel steht. Die Finanzierung von Angriffskriegen und Militäroperationen durch informelle Netzwerke und durch illegale Rohstofftransaktionen aus Entwicklungsregionen wie Afrika zeigt auch, dass die Stabilität des internationalen Finanzsystems neu austariert werden muss. Entwicklungsfeindliche „Geschäftsmodelle“, wie von der Gruppe Wagner in Afrika im Auftrag des Kremls praktiziert, wirken deutlich gegen alle 17 Nachhaltigkeitsziele, die 2015 vereinbart wurden.

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Advising on African and Global Studies – Festschrift 30 Years African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Innovation Policies in Bremen, World Economy Transitions and COVID-19, Cooperation with the University of Bremen Archives, and Evaluation of Working Programmes, Manuscripts and International Study Programmes

Recent months were busy times for Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth. He guided the project “Festschrift Anniversary of Thirty Years (1989-2019)  of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook”. The Festschrift was finalized as a first edition in November 2020, and the second edition appeared in January 2021. The University of Bremen has republished the Festschrift as a major document on its media platform. The number of contributors to the Festschrift was very high, and the response to make recommendations for a further quality increase was great. It was proposed to move with the Yearbook to an open access system; negotiations are now underway. A great number of suggestions came in to make the Yearbook a real platform for success stories and sustainable reforms in Africa. It was decided by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to publish a Festschrift, as a physical celebration of the Thirty Years Anniversary was not possible because of COVID-19.

Professor Wohlmuth and the editors of volume 22 (2020/21) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook have in the meantime finalized the new volume. It is now in the process of publication. The new volume has two Units with twelve chapters and a further Unit with book reviews and book notes. Professor Wohlmuth and the team of Unit Editors have introduced the content of all the three Units. The volume is quite relevant as the theme “Sustainable Development Goal Nine and African Development” touches issues of promoting industrialization, developing infrastructure, and building innovation capacity in Africa. Also, the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen has released in December 2020 the new call for papers for volume 23 (2022) on “Business Opportunities, Start-ups and Digital Transformation in Africa”. A Unit  on “COVID-19 and repurposing industries in Africa” and Units with country cases  of digital transformation and digital entrepreneurship are envisaged. There is already great interest to become part of the new Yearbook project.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi from the Department of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has finalized important research work for international and regional African organizations, and for the Yearbook in cooperation with Professor Wohlmuth. Also, a major research report by the two professors came out on “Waste Management Policies in Nigeria and Germany”, with a focus on the municipalities of Lagos and Bremen. Professor Alabi has also finalized a study on “Financial innovations and agricultural development in Nigeria”. The study is part of his research programme “Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany”. He will now take up again his duties as a full professor of agricultural economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. In the Festschrift “Thirty Years Anniversary of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook” he gave an account of the role the Yearbook has played for enhancing reforms in Africa. Professor Alabi will continue his work as co-editor of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

Professor Wohlmuth was active in evaluating applications for professorship, research manuscripts, and international study programmes. He was again appointed as a member of a promotions committee for professors (associate and full professors) at a university in Michigan, USA. He did reviews for development economics and environmental economics journals. He evaluated international study programmes in Tajikistan. This work was possible only in the form of virtual meetings, what limits considerably real evaluations. Tajikistan is reforming its study programmes also in the field of economics. The study programmes related to economics and business studies in Tajikistan intend to support also the research component, especially so in the direction of increasing the competitiveness of the Tadjik economy. It was found out during the meetings that more international cooperation of teachers and researchers and higher financial support for individual research programmes are quite necessary. While the leading staff persons of the  universities in Tajikistan are linked to the government offices and/or the traditional elites, the young teachers and researchers are mobile, motivated, mostly English-speaking, and interested to cooperate with universities in countries of the European Union and with universities in other geo-political regions (USA, China, Russia, India).

The Government of Bremen is on the move to develop a new “Innovation Strategy for the Country State of Bremen 2030” to replace the outdated Innovation Programme 2020 and the Cluster Strategy 2020. Professor Wohlmuth works on the issues of innovation and technology policy of Bremen since the 1980s when his institute produced a handbook “Bremen as a location for high technology industries”. In recent months, Professor Wohlmuth has contributed essays on new innovation policies for Bremen to support  in this way a new innovation strategy for Bremen. The COVID-19-crisis gave an additional push for reforms of innovation policies as many industries in Bremen are severely affected, because leading cluster industries (space and aircraft industries, automotive sector, logistics and transport industry, tourism, and others) have to overcome the crisis in the medium- to long-term. The main issue is to combine new cluster and innovation strategies with a strategy to navigate the industries out of the COVID-19-crisis. The Professor has emphasized five elements of an action programme for Bremen (institutional reform component; strengthening the regional innovation system; value-added-focussed and employment-oriented component; further developing the health, medical support, and care sector; and supporting digitalization).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has accepted the offer of the University of Bremen Archives (Universitätsarchiv) to transmit a considerable part of his scientific research and teaching fundus, with materials classified on eight categories (first, Teaching  Projects since 1971; second, Integrated Introductory Study Programmes in the 1970s; third, Research and Consulting Activities on Sudan 1978-2021; fourth, Researches on African Development since the 1970s, Consulting on Africa since the 1980s, and Editing/Publishing the African Development Perspectives Yearbook since 1989; fifth, Shaping the development of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies since 1971; sixth, Organising the research, teaching, advisory, and training activities as the Director of the World Economy Research Group since the 1970s and of the IWIM/Institute for World Economics and International Management since 1987; seventh, Developing the international cooperation projects since 1971 for the University of Bremen, for the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, and for IWIM; and eighth, Documenting the personal development and the career of Karl Wohlmuth since the 1960s). Professor Wohlmuth celebrates in September 2021 50 years as professor of comparative economic systems at the University of Bremen, as he moved to the new university in September 1971. He came from the Institute for the Theory of Economic Policy at the FU of Berlin after work periods in Vienna and in Linz, Austria. He was part of a small group of professors who were in the first weeks of the new university appointed in meetings of the whole Senate of the Country State of Bremen, while months later the calls to Bremen and the appointments of professors were done by the Senator of Education and Science. An audio file of an interview with Professor Karl Wohlmuth about his life, his scientific work, and his experiences at the University of Bremen is also available in the University of Bremen Archives.

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“Towards A New Vision For Inclusive Development in Sudan” – First Conference of the Sudan Research Group (SRG) in November 2019 after the Sudanese Revolution in Khartoum

The Sudan Research Group (SRG) has now released its conference report
on the first conference held in Khartoum, Sudan which took place some months after the Sudanese Revolution and the instalment of the Transitional Government. The title of the report is “Towards Sustainable Inclusive Development in Sudan“. The participants were divided into eight clusters to discuss 31 papers around the Conference’s main themes: 1- Macroeconomic Management for Inclusive Development; 2- Bringing the Productive Sectors back in Sudan; 3- Governance and Institutions; 4- Management of Natural Resources; 5- Sustainable Infra-Structure; 6- Social Policy and Public Service Delivery; 7- The Role of the Private Sector; and 8- Gender. The Report was published in 2020 and contains Recommendations on Macroeconomic Issues, Reviving the Productive Sectors, Governance and Institutions, The  Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Infrastructure, Social Policy and Public Service Delivery, and the Private Sector. There are specific recommendations to the Transitional Government, to the Ministry of Finance and to other competent ministries, to International Donors, and to Civil Society Organizations. The full report contains information about all the clusters of the conference.

The Sudan Research Group (SRG) writes about its mandate: “The Sudan Research Group is a UK-based voluntary organization. It was formed in 2003 by a group of academics and researchers who felt a pressing need for a specialized network that brings together multidisciplinary academics, researchers, activists and policy makers in a forum devoted to in-depth discussions of the key and pressing issues that face the country. Dedicated to impact, it aims to produce and promote research and scholarship that may inform home-grown policies to address the country’s urgent economic, political, and social needs.” And the SRG reports about the conferences: “The main conferences and events organized by the Group so far include “Economic Challenges in Post-conflict Sudan” (2004), “Institutional and Governance Requirements for the Future Development of Sudan” ( 2005 ), “Education and Capacity Building” (2006), “Assessing the Peace-building in Darfur”, (2008), “General Education Crisis in Sudan” (with an Open Themes Group), (2016), Training in Communication for Sudanese NGOs” (2019), and a series of Webinars.” Then, “Towards Sustainable Inclusive Development in Sudan” (2019) was the first conference that SRG was able to convene in Sudan after the Sudanese Revolution which started in December 2018. It was convened for June 2019, but was then postponed to November 2019 (SRG 5TH Meeting Tentative Agenda).

Contact Information about SRG: Email address:; Website:

About the Report on the SRG Conference November 2019 in Khartoum, Sudan: “The Sudan Research Group (SRG) is pleased to introduce a summary of the proceedings of its Fifth Conference, with the title “Towards Sustainable Inclusive Development in Sudan”. Held only three months after the formation of the Transitional Government that followed the end of three decades of dictatorship, the conference sought to provide a neutral space for open discussions that help in shaping the agenda for change. More than 160 researchers, policy makers, private sector and civil society participants engaged in three days of constructive - and sometimes heated debate - about immediate reform programs and long -term development policies. This report provides a brief summary of the discussions on the key themes of the conference and its substantive findings. It should be noted that the messages and ideas summarized are not intended to indicate a consensus and they do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the SRG”. The report is available for download as a PDF under: Final SRG 5th Conf. 2019. Professor Karl Wohlmuth had the privilege to be invited to the conference as a speaker for the cluster Infrastructure. Professor Wohlmuth follows the studies and projects of the SRG carefully.

Dr. Gamal Al-Tayib from UNECA in Addis Ababa is one of the founders of the SRG.

Another important development about Sudan as two thinktanks are cooperating: SRG is joined by SWEA in development work

In the new Sudan independent NGOs can be founded and have space for action. SWEA (see below) is now ready to mobilise the women economists. There are links between SRG and SWEA. SERG in Bremen is cooperating with these groups.

Sudanese Women Economists Association (SWEA): Empowering the Women in the Peripheries through Capacity Building Projects

Women economists work together for a peaceful and prospering Sudan. Sawsan Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil from the Ministry of Finance in Khartoum, Sudan is a co-founder of the Sudanese Women Economists Association (SWEA). SWEA was founded in June 2020. SWEA is collaborating with the Sudan Research Group (SRG) in a capacity building project. The first (and so far the only) project was an online training on a research proposal writing for the students of Nayala, El Fahser, Gedaref and Kassala, but much more is in the pipeline. Sawsan Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil from the Ministry of Finance in Khartoum, Sudan is working now with the Aid Coordination Unit of the Ministry to restructure their strategy. We cooperate from the SERG in Bremen with SRG and SWEA to learn more about the reforms ongoing in Sudan and to support the process of change in the country. It is intended to cooperate on the new Yearbook project of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (see the International Call for Papers Volume 23).


The Sudanese Women Economists Association (SWEA) is becoming an important partner for democratic development, inclusive growth, and economic change in Sudan.

Source: Website SWEA


About the Mandate of SWEA:

“The Sudanese Women Economists Association (SWEA) was founded in June 2020, on the ground of redeeming the prevalent gap of women economists participation in the policy and academic spheres in Sudan. Fuelled by the enthusiasm of its founders and members, SWEA aims at building capacities, encouraging and amplifying the contribution of women economists, and of young women pursuing degrees in economics. SWEA strives to achieve this by providing a platform to convene Sudanese women economists, offering networking opportunities and enriching the economic research space by the contributions from its members.”

The Vision of SWEA:

“SWEA’s vision is to advance Sudanese women economists’ participation in academic and public policy spheres in Sudan. Our aim is to promote solidarity between Sudanese women economists across generations, as a key step to build capacity of young women in economics and to amplify the voices of Sudanese women in economic research and practice.”

The website of SWEA is:

 Source: Website SWEA

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New Publications on Sudan’s Regional Development: Food Security and Agricultural Development in Kassala State, Sudan

Professor Samia Nour from the University of Khartoum, Sudan has published (in cooperation with Dr. Eltayeb Mohamedain) a working paper and two policy briefs on Food Security and Agricultural Development in Kassala State, Sudan. These are publications of the CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute). The CMI Sudan Working paper Number 1 (21 July 2020) and the two CMI Policy Briefs (21 July 2020) are of interest as the focus is on research done by regional universities and for advice to policymakers in peripheral regions in Sudan. The two policy briefs are based on the findings in the CMI Sudan working paper number 1 (21 July 2020) that analyses agricultural development and food security with the use of survey data from Kassala State. This research is conducted as part of the Agriculture and Food Security cluster in the Assisting Regional Universities in Sudan (ARUS) programme. The ARUS programme is a collaboration between CMI, the University of Khartoum, Ahfad University for Women, the University of Bergen, and several regional universities in Sudan. The programme is funded by the Norwegian Embassy in Khartoum. The importance of these studies is that regional universities in Sudan are participating, and that key issues of peripheral areas like food security and agricultural development are more deeply researched.

Professor Samia Nour is now also Book Reviews/Book Notes Editor of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. She has advised the editors of volumes 20 (2018) and 21 (2019) and is Unit editor and Volume Editor for volume 22 (2020/21). She is also collaborating with various international research organisations. She has recently published in the SERG discussion papers of IWIM on Sudan’s revolution (see Number 44 of the SERG discussion papers with the title: “Overview of the Sudan Uprising”:

Access to these three CMI publications (see links below) which are co-authored by Professor Samia Nour:

CMI Sudan Working Paper Number 1: “Food Security and Agricultural Development in Sudan: The case of Kassala State”, CMI Sudan Working Paper Number 1, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway, 21 July 2020, pp. 1-113. Link: Food Security and Agricultural Development in Sudan: The case of Kassala State

See the Abstract (shortened) below.

Sudan CMI Policy Brief Number 3: “Food Insecurity in Sudan as seen from Kassala State ”, Sudan CMI Policy Brief Number 3, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway, 21 July 2020, pp. 1-4. Link: Food Insecurity in Sudan as seen from Kassala State

“This policy brief discusses the incidence of food insecurity, explores families’ survival strategies, and recommends measures that may combat food insecurity.”

Sudan CMI Policy Brief 4: “Agricultural development and food Security in Sudan as seen from Kassala State”, Sudan CMI Policy Brief Number 4, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway, 21 July 2020, pp. 1-4. Link: Agricultural development and food Security in Sudan as seen from Kassala State

“This policy brief uses data from Kassala State to assess the close link between agricultural development and food security, and investigates factors and policies that can strengthen agricultural development, thereby increasing food security in Sudan.”

Abstract (shortened) of Sudan Working Paper 1, 21 July 2020

Food Security and Agricultural Development in Sudan: The case of Kassala State,

by Prof. Dr. Samia Mohamed Nour and Dr. Eltayeb Mohamedain, Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (Sudan Working Paper 2020:1)

This research discusses the relationship between agricultural development and food security, the determinants of the supply of food and of the demand for food, and the determinants of food insecurity in Kassala State. In so doing, it provides a significant contribution to the current literature. Used are new primary data from a Food Security Household Survey which was conducted in Kassala State (2019). It was found that the majority of households are food insecure (77%), out of which 32.9% of the households are severely food insecure, while fewer households are fully food secure (23%). There is a large variation in households' food insecurity between localities, with rural Kassala having most of the food insecure households. This may be explained by the variation in monthly income between localities.

Three hypotheses are examined. A first hypothesis is verified that the most significant determinants of production of food are the size of agricultural land, the available livestock, and the irrigation systems. There is support for the second hypothesis that the family's own production of food and the household income have positive effects on food consumption. It is found that the significant determinants of the production of sorghum (the main staple food) are the size of agricultural land and the available livestock, and that the significant determinants of consumption of sorghum are the family's own production of sorghum, the household income, and the family size. For small farmers, their own consumption of sorghum is to a larger extent determined by their own production of sorghum. Therefore, enhancing production of sorghum among smallholders would contribute to enhancing consumption of sorghum and hence supporting food security. The third hypothesis is verified that better working conditions of the farmers are crucial for family own production of food and are then supporting food security; the probabilities of households being food secure increase with better working conditions for higher family own production .

Investigating the gender gap related to food production and food security has led to the results that male-headed households produce more food and are more food secure than female-headed households. Some reasons for this observation are analyzed. Also, it was found out that agricultural production is impeded by the lack of agricultural land, the cultivation of only few crops, an insufficient irrigation system, and shortages of agricultural services, which are mainly related to the provision of agricultural technology. Therefore, the major policy implication is that measures aimed at increasing household incomes and enhancing family own production of food are important for eliminating food insecurity. Recommended are therefore policies that may increase household incomes and may enhance smallholders' own production of food. Relevant policy instruments may be increases of agricultural land ownership, increases of the size of cultivated land for smallholders, more diversification of agricultural food crops, an improvement of irrigation systems, measures for enhancing female participation in agricultural activities and food security, steps towards improvement of agricultural services, mainly related to the adoption of technology, improving access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation systems, and, in general terms, improved infrastructure which may help in access to food, to inputs, and to production requirements.

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Die „Sudanesische Revolution“, die Demokratisierung und die Perspektiven der Bürgerbewegung - Vortrag von Professor Karl Wohlmuth an der Universität Mainz

Im Rahmen einer Ringvorlesung „Afrika - Der zurückgelassene Kontinent“ referierte Professor Karl Wohlmuth über die Chancen der Demokratiebewegung im Sudan und über die Perspektiven der Bürgerbewegung (vgl. die PDF mit der Präsentation von Professor Karl Wohlmuth zur Bürgerbewegung und zur Demokratisierung im Sudan). Professor Wohlmuth ging zunächst auf die aktuelle Lage im Sudan nach dem Sturz des Bashir-Regimes ein und skizzierte dann die Entwicklung und die Struktur der Bürgerbewegung, die den Regimewechsel maßgeblich herbeiführte. Um aber auch einen nachhaltigen Systemwechsel zu ermöglichen, ist es nach Meinung des Bremer Professors notwendig, die Rahmenbedingungen für eine erfolgreiche Bürgerbewegung zügig zu schaffen. Dies setzt voraus, dass die Machtpfeiler des Systems (Militär und Sicherheitsapparat; Parteien und parteiabhängige Organisationen; Regierungen und Bürokratien auf zentraler und lokaler Ebene; islamische Bruderschaften und abhängige islamische Gruppierungen; große Unternehmen und Kapitalgruppen; professionelle Vereinigungen, Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände) auf Grund ihrer ökonomischen Vernetzung als „Elemente eines tiefen Staates“ begriffen werden.

Um den „tiefen Staat“, der innerhalb von 30 Jahren (1989 - 2019) im Sudan geschaffen wurde, durch Bürgerbewegungen und demokratische Prozesse zu kontrollieren, müssen die sozialen, organisatorischen und ökonomischen Verflechtungen zwischen diesen Machtpfeilern erkannt und beeinflusst werden. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen zum „tiefen Staat“ im Sudan kommen von zivilgesellschaftlichen sudanesischen Nichtregierungsorganisationen und von internationalen Organisationen. Die Studien zeigen, dass es nur teilweise gelungen ist, diese Verflechtungen im vergangenen Jahr seit dem Sturz des Bashir-Regimes aufzubrechen. Im Vortrag wurden die Verflechtungen im „tiefen Staat“ an Beispielen dargestellt und die Perspektiven einer „Demokratisierung von unten“ wurden erläutert. Strategische Sektoren, wie die Telekommunikation, die Goldgewinnung und andere Bergbauaktivitäten, die Pharma- und Chemieindustrie, die Bauwirtschaft, und die Rüstungsindustrie, werden nach wie vor von Militärs, Milizen, Geheimdienstoffizieren, Politikern der National Congress Party, und von der Familie von al-Bashir kontrolliert. Kapitalgruppen, die im Rahmen der  Privatisierungspolitik des Bashir-Regimes entstanden sind, geben den Mantel für diese Verflechtungen.

Gezeigt wurde im Vortrag auch, dass die Reformen im Sudan nach wie vor durch internationale Sanktionen, durch mangelnde finanzielle und logistische Unterstützung von Seiten westlicher Länder, und durch regionale Krisenfaktoren behindert werden. Interne Faktoren dominieren aber unter all den Hemmnissen für einen Systemwechsel. Ansatzpunkte für Reformen ergeben sich auf  vielen Ebenen, doch zeigen die Erfahrungen seit der Unabhängigkeit im Jahre 1956, dass die Demokratiebewegungen im Sudan schwach blieben und demokratisch gewählte Regierungen immer nur von kurzer Dauer waren. Professor Karl Wohlmuth arbeitet derzeit an einer Studie, die externe und interne Krisenfaktoren in ihrem Zusammenwirken bei der Blockierung von Reformen seit der Unabhängigkeit des Sudan analysiert. Grundlage sind die Studien, die seit 1978 in Bremen über den Sudan angefertigt wurden. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit wird dem „tiefen Staat“ im Sudan in der Periode seit 1989 gewidmet werden.

Quelle: Salzburger Nachrichten, 9. April 2020 (Vor allem die Frauen trugen die Revolution im Sudan).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat in mehreren Arbeiten die Wirtschaftsdoktrinen des  Bashir-Regimes untersucht und aufgezeigt, dass praktisch alle Maßnahmen der Bashir-Regierung seit 1989 dem Ziel untergeordnet wurden, die Ressourcen des Landes (Öl, Gold, Wasser, Land) und die öffentlichen, privatisierten und privaten Unternehmen der National Congress Party (NCP) nutzbar zu machen. Diesem Ziel wurden die Privatisierungspolitik, die Handels- und Technologiepolitik, die Industrie- und Wettbewerbspolitik, aber auch die Infrastruktur- und Landwirtschaftspolitik untergeordnet. Auch der vom Regime initiierte gelenkte Föderalismus wurde in den Dienst dieser Politik gestellt. Die Verflechtungen von Militär, Milizen, Sicherheitsapparat und Wirtschaft wurden auf allen Ebenen vertieft, bis hin zur Stärkung der Military Industry Corporation (MIC); die Instrumentalisierung von Konflikten im Sudan und mit Nachbarländern wurde wichtiger Teil dieser Politik. In der Diskussion nach dem Vortrag wurde immer wieder die Frage artikuliert, ob denn im Sudan Potentiale für erfolgreiche Bürger- und Demokratiebewegungen gesehen werden können (vgl. zur Thematik des Vortrages die Studien, die im Rahmen der Sudanforschungsgruppe/Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG angefertigt wurden; die Nummer 38 der SERG Discussion Papers gibt einen Überblick über diese Veröffentlichungen in: „Sudan Studies 1979 - 2011 in Bremen“, January 2011; Zugang mit dem Download:

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