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06.06.2019
New Studies on Implementing Economic Reforms in Tunisia – New Approaches towards Employment Generation, Industrial Development and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Promotion

Two new studies came out from the Bremen Tunisia Project – first, a study on De-Industrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia and second, a whole Unit of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019 containing a set of studies on Innovation Policies, Industrial Cluster Policies and Health Sector Reform Policies in Tunisia. A Synopsis on the proposed strategies for the policymakers was written by Professor Karl Wohlmuth (see the PDF Tunisia-Employment, Industry and STI Policies 2019).

The first study is on implementing economic reforms through a) labour market transformations and laying the institutional foundations for a National Employment Strategy, b) managing de-industrialization through pro-active industrial development policies, c) exploiting multiple paths of reindustrialization via promotion of all productive sectors, regional industry development, supporting viable regional and global value chains and mobilizing green growth potentials in the country, and d) involving new partners and actors in the implementation process of economic reforms, also at regional and global levels. These issues were discussed at a conference on reindustrialization in Tunisia (see about the Reindustrialization Conference in Tunisia and the Bremen Tunisia Project: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/).

In the second study three key areas of STI policies were discussed, first, the role of obstacles to innovation in and among Tunisian firms; second, the role of industrial clusters smart specialization policies for innovations; and third, the role of innovation policies in the health sector comprising all relevant sub-sectors and value chains. These essays are part of a strategy to promote STI policies in North Africa with a focus on Egypt and Tunisia. Two volumes of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (Volume 20 for 2018 and Volume 21 for 2019) were devoted to the issue of Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. These essays are in Volume 21.

The Bremen Tunisia Project is running since 5 years. A short report was presented by Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the  University of Applied Sciences Bremen at a jubilee meeting in 2018 for an international study programme on Applied Economic Languages (AWS/Angewandte Wirtschaftssprachen) Arabic, Japanese and Chinese running for 30 years (see Bass Presentation AWS). Volume 21 for 2019 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is also part of a jubilee event in 2019 as this Yearbook Project is now running for 30 (thirty) years, as the number one issue on Human Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa was published in 1989 (see the link to the various issues of the Yearbook Project: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

Bibliographic Information on the New Publications:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2018, De-Industrialisierung, Reindustrialisierung und Beschäftigung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Seiten 33-90, in: Zeitschrift "Berichte", 2018/II, 28. Jg., Nr. 213, ISSN 1022-3258, Thema des Heftes (Theme of the Issue of the Journal): Gegensätze - Westbalkan, Tunesien und Karl Marx, Berlin, Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik (IWVWW) e. V.

African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019, Volume 21, Theme: Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – Human Skills Development and Country Cases, Edited by Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Chantal Marie Ngo Tong and Karl Wohlmuth, LIT Publishers Wien-Zürich, 2019, with contributions on Tunisia in Unit 2: Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Economic Transformation in North Africa by: Nazar Mohamed Hassan and Karl Wohlmuth; Zouhour Karray and Wiem Ben Ghorbel Abed; Maximilian Benner; and by Mondher Khanfir and Sana Ayari-Riabi.

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06.06.2019
A New Study on Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria and in Germany was released and is published in IWIM’s Globalization in the World Economy Series

This study was written by Guest Researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi from the Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Nigeria and by Professor Emeritus Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Germany. It investigates in a comparative form the progress of waste management policies in Nigeria and in Germany, with special emphasis on the conditions in the Lagos State of Nigeria and in the Country State of Bremen in Germany. Also, the move from conventional waste management in the linear economic model to integrated resource and waste management in the circular economic model is discussed. While waste management in the linear economic model focusses in Nigeria and in Germany on a distinct hierarchy of objectives, the resource and waste management in the circular model incorporates the whole life cycle of the products and the societal relevance of the products in view of its objectives. Focus is in the study on the country state of Lagos in Nigeria and on the country state of Bremen in Germany. Both country states have a great role as harbour and logistic towns, as industrial towns and as towns with scientific and technological infrastructure. There are also differences as Lagos is an important financial services hub while Bremen is famous for its aircraft and space industry. The study compares the progress of waste management and resource conservation policies but reflects also on the different institutional and logistical structures of waste management in the two country states, being the result of specific economic sectors and factors. Factors such as the importance of formal and informal private enterprises, the role of public institutions and of private actors in the waste management business, and the relevance of public waste management policies, laws, plans and balance sheets play a role in the study. Also, the role of new equipment and new communication technologies for the further development of the waste industry in the two countries/country states is considered.

The Necessity of A Move Towards Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria
Source: Towards a sustainable waste management (The Guardian, 16 May 2016; Link: https://guardian.ng/opinion/towards-a-sustainable-waste-management/)

The study is based on relevant literature which is available for the two countries/states and on meetings/interviews with experts on waste management in the two countries/states. Based on questionnaires the authors have investigated the specific frameworks of waste management policies. A major result is that Germany (and Bremen) and Nigeria (and Lagos) can cooperate in a mutually beneficial way on waste management – in policymaking and planning, on developing and selecting equipment and new technologies, on services provision and training, but also on guiding the transformation process towards a circular economy. Nigeria can learn from the German and European way of implementing coherent policies, while Germany and Europe can learn from Nigeria’s way to solve problems which arise at the local level. The study brought to attention that the waste industry in Germany and in Bremen is embedded into a complex web of directives, laws and regulations; this is a strict policy framework from the EU level downwards and to the EU level upwards. In Nigeria, there is no coherent waste governance system down from the federation, but at local and state levels there are some binding rules (of formal and/or informal origin). This quite different way of organizing waste management has consequences for the development of the waste industry in the two countries. It impacts also on the selection of options used in waste management in regard of the six (6) objectives discussed in the hierarchy of actions chosen (see below).

Most Favoured and Least Favoured Options in Waste Management

Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_hierarchy

For Nigeria, this situation means that local informal producers, local informal organizations, and local informal waste management actors play a great role. Important is it that informal actors in the waste management business are rediscovered as partners of public agencies, public firms and formal sector private firms. Informal sector firms can also be partners in the transformation from waste management in the linear economy model towards resource management within the circular economy model. Informal enterprises can ably prepare end-of-life products for re-use or they can make them the basis for large-scale recycling and recovery. Privatization versus re-communalization is another issue of relevance for the waste industry as experiences in Lagos and in Bremen show. For Germany, the decision criterion should be the ability to innovate for a circular economy; this should be the basic criterion for privatization versus re-communalization. In Nigeria, a larger role of informal enterprises in the waste industry can contribute to the circular economy. Such firms can redesign the products and can remanufacture them for low-income social groups; waste can then be reduced or even prevented. Waste prevention is an issue for both countries/country states/municipalities. Bremen as a country state and Bremen as a municipality can support initiatives for a deep cooperation in a waste management partnership with Lagos and Nigeria. Lagos can be the first address for such a cooperation, although the population and the industry size of Lagos State are so much bigger compared to Bremen.

Waste Management Facilities as used in Germany are exported globally to developed and emerging economies

Source: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/topics/waste-resources/waste-management

Policy Focus and Dissemination of the Study

There is great interest from the side of waste management authorities in Nigeria in the policy recommendations presented in the study. Professor Alabi is discussing the possibility of workshops in Nigeria to inform the public about the major results. Also, waste management and resource conservation companies show interest in the investigation of the two authors. Because of the rate of population growth, the speed of urbanization and the need to scale up industrial, agricultural and agro-industrial development in Nigeria, there is urgency in regard of implementing such policy recommendations.

Bibliographic Details on the New Study on Waste Management in Nigeria and Germany:

Wohlmuth, Karl/Reuben A. Alabi, 2019, The Case of Sustainable Management of Waste in Germany (and Bremen) and Practical Lessons for Nigeria (and Lagos), pages i-xxx and 147 pages and i-vii pages, Materialien des Wissenschaftsschwerpunktes „Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft“ (ehemals: Materialien des Universitätsschwerpunktes „Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und Internationales Management“), Bd. 44, April 2019, ISSN 0948-3837, Access Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-white.htm and: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/weisse_reihe/.

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06.06.2019
Professor R. A. Alabi extends his Research Programme at the University of Bremen until end of 2020 and cooperates with World Bank, IFPRI and AERC

Since 2015 Professor Alabi is researching in Bremen at the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen. This is part of the activities of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, directed by Professor Wohlmuth. Professor Wohlmuth is supervising the research activities and is advising this particular research programme. For the years 2019 and 2020 Professor Alabi has proposed four new research projects, after having finalized four others in recent years (see the detailed Research Report of Professor Alabi). Among the finalized research projects are: Cassava Production, Processing, Fortification and Acceptability in Nigeria (for the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Volume 20); The Pro-poorness of the Fertilizer Subsidy and its Implication on Food Security in Nigeria (for the Africa Research Department of IMF); The Case of Sustainable Management of Waste in Germany and Practical Lessons for Nigeria (in joint authorship with Professor Wohlmuth and addressed to waste management authorities in Nigeria); and The Causes and Economic Consequences of Political Conflicts in Nigeria (for the Community of Students from Nigeria in Germany).

Among the new research projects are: Impact of State Government Public Expenditure on Yam Productivity and Its Implications for Food Security in Nigeria (for AERC, Nairobi); Addressing Youth Unemployment in Nigeria Using Agricultural and Business Technologies (in cooperation with staff from World Bank and IFPRI); Impact of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on the Productivity of Food Crops and Its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria (in cooperation with agencies of Nigerian States and the Nigerian Federation); and Financial Inclusion, Innovation and Agricultural Development in Africa (in cooperation with the editors of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook).

To pursue these research programmes, Professor Alabi is cooperating with international organizations  (IMF, World Bank) and with international and regional African research organizations (IFPRI, AERC).  The research commitment at the IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C. was an excellent opportunity to present his research findings on innovative agricultural policies of Nigeria (see the picture from the event below). A short report on the project is presented here (Alabi IMF Activity – E-Wallet-Fertilizer Subsidy).

Lecture at IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C. by Professor Alabi (third person from right) about:
THE PRO-POORNESS OF The FERTILIZER SUBSIDY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

Source: Seminar at IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C./Presentation by Professor Alabi

Professor Alabi has recently launched a global research and publication initiative (see the link to the project: https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/10096/labor-requirements-of-alternative-land-use-systems-and-the-impacts-on-livelihoods). The research programme - in cooperation with staff from World Bank and IFPRI - is titled “Labour Requirements of Alternative Land Use Systems, and the Impacts on Livelihoods”. It has the following research interest (taken from the overview): “Projections indicate that food production may need to increase by 60% by 2050 to meet the food requirements of a growing global population. However, conventional forms of agriculture are often unsustainable and global croplands are increasingly impacted by soil erosion, reduced fertility, and/or overgrazing. As populations grow and food demand increases, pressure on land resources is expected to rise and make lands more vulnerable to degradation. Namely, further increases in the use of fertilizers and pesticides for expanding food production may cause excessive nutrient loading in soils, leading to eutrophication and declining soil fertility.” As the programme is of great relevance for Africa, submission of original research from African research teams are expected.

Applications to support researches and to publish original research are invited from the three partners of the project which form the core editorial team.

Research Topic:
Labour Requirements of Alternative Land Use Systems, and the Impacts on Livelihoods

Source:
https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/10096/labor-requirements-of-alternative-land-use-systems-and-the-impacts-on-livelihoods

About Frontiers Research Topics (as requested from the editors): “With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.”

Professor Alabi was invited to participate at the June 2019 meeting of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) at Cape Town, South Africa. He will give a presentation about the research programme “Impact of public expenditure on yam productivity and its implications on food security in Nigeria”. This is a follow-up to a high-level meeting of AERC in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2018.  The research programme has a great importance for the agricultural transformation policy in Nigeria (see the Abstract of the research programme for AERC by Professor Alabi - Yam Productivity in Nigeria). Professor Alabi cooperates intensively since years with AERC; he has participated at various high-level meetings and has received valuable research grants from the institution. Research output from these research programmes are published in issues of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Professor Alabi is one of the co-editors of the Yearbook.

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06.06.2019
Chinesische Experten informieren sich über die Innovations- und Industriepolitik des Landes Bremen: Strategien zu Industrie 4.0 im Fokus

Professor Karl Wohlmuth von der Universität Bremen hielt Vorträge über Die Innovationspolitik in Deutschland und Bremen. Impulse für die Industrie 4.0 für chinesische Wirtschafts- und Industrieexperten aus der Autonomen Region Guangxi, VR China und aus der Provinz Hubei, VR China (vgl. die Präsentationen des Professors für die Teilnehmer aus Guangxi und Hubei). Das Interesse der Experten war groß hinsichtlich der Bremer Strategie einer Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderung mit dem Fokus auf Industrie 4.0. Professor Wohlmuth betonte in seinen Vorträgen drei Themen: Erstens, Deutschland im globalen Innovationswettbewerb und die Perspektiven von Industrie 4.0; zweitens, Nationale und Regionale Innovationssysteme: Die Bedeutung für die Industrie 4.0; und drittens, Die Förderpolitik für die Industrie 4.0 im Rahmen der Innovationspolitik: Beispiele aus Bremen. Das Interesse der Experten aus China richtete sich schwerpunktmäßig auf die Organisation der Wirtschafts- und Innovationsförderung im Land Bremen, dem kleinsten deutschen Bundesland, da auch in China nun verstärkt versucht wird, lokale Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsstrategien für mittelgroße Städte und kleinere innovative Regionen zu entwickeln. Der Fokus in China liegt dabei zunehmend auf Strategien der Entwicklung von Konzepten für die Förderung von Industrie 4.0.

Das Land Bremen findet bei den chinesischen Experten auf Grund  der kurzen Wege bei der Entscheidungsbildung großes Interesse, da alle wichtigen Stakeholder für die Förderung von Industrie 4.0 lokal konzentriert und vernetzt sind. Besonders wichtig waren für die Experten aus China Beispiele für die Gestaltung einer Politik zur Förderung von Industrie 4.0 im Bremer Raum; die zentrale Rolle der Behörden, der Interessenvertretungen, der Weiterbildungsträger, der Unternehmen und der Universitäten in Bremen wurde in der Diskussion stark thematisiert. Die Wirtschaftsförderung Bremen berät zu Fragen von Industrie 4.0 und die chinesischen Experten wollten an konkreten Beispielen für Förderungsmaßnahmen sehen, wie die Bremer Institution dabei vorgeht. Die Rolle der Interessenvertretungen im Land Bremen, wie die Arbeitnehmerkammer und die Gewerkschaften, aber auch die Handels- und Handwerkskammern und die Arbeitgeberverbände, wurde von Professor Wohlmuth ebenfalls ausführlich an Beispielen dargestellt. An Aktivitäten von zwei bedeutenden bremischen High Tech-Unternehmen (BEGO und OHB) wurde auf die Implementierung von Maßnahmen der Industrie 4.0 eingegangen; deren Initiativen für die bremische Region wurden ebenfalls dargestellt. Die von der Universität Bremen geführte „Forschungsallianz“ von hochkarätigen Forschungsinstituten am Technologiepark Bremen ist mit dem Thema „Digitale Transformation“ an den Forschungen zu Industrie 4.0 stark beteiligt; auch der Auftrag der „Forschungsallianz“ im Rahmen der industriellen Transformation Bremens wurde erläutert. Das Gesamtsystem der bremischen Förderpolitik für Industrie 4.0 wurde an sechs interagierenden Polen des bremischen Innovationssystems abschließend erläutert.

Die Experten aus der Autonomen Region Guangxi, VR China (Fläche 237.000 km² und 48 Millionen Einwohner; Wirtschaftsbasis: Landwirtschaft, insbesondere Zuckerrohr, Energie, Metalle, Tourismus, etc.) und aus der Provinz Hubei, VR China (Fläche 186.000 km² und 57 Millionen Einwohner; Wirtschaftsbasis: Eisen- und Stahlindustrie; Metall- und Textilindustrie; Automobil- und Elektronikindustrie, Maschinenbau, Tourismus, etc.) sind mit der industriellen Transformation in ihren Gebieten/Regionen federführend befasst; der Fokus liegt immer stärker auf Industrie 4.0. Seit mehreren Jahren ist der Bremer Professor im Rahmen dieses Besuchsprogramms an Workshops als Referent beteiligt. Der Fokus der Vorträge von Professor Wohlmuth liegt auf den Strukturen des bremischen Innovationssystems, das als integraler Bestandteil des Nationalen und des Europäischen Innovationssystems analysiert wird. Weitere Einladungen im Jahr 2018 kamen zu Vorträgen für Delegationen aus Tianjin, eine der vier regierungsunmittelbaren Städte der VR China, und von der University of Xuchang. Provinz Henan.

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06.06.2019
Sudan Expert Consultation on Development, Conflict and Peace at the Foreign Office in Berlin - Professor Karl Wohlmuth speaks about “International and regional economics and politics impacting on conflict and stability in the Sudan”

To prepare for the impacts of the escalating political and economic crisis in Sudan, the Foreign Office in Berlin has invited key international researchers on Sudan, representatives from German and UK ministries, representatives from thinktanks, and representatives from international NGOs to discuss under Chatham House rules about ways to address the Current Dynamics in Sudan, the Future of the International and Regional Interventions in Darfur, and the Regional Dynamics of Sudan. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on Sudan’s economic problems and perspectives, highlighting the internal economic problems and the cross-border issues which are affecting the development of the country (see the Presentation on Sudan by Karl Wohlmuth). Main emphasis in the presentation was on the need to revise the national economic policy of Sudan towards stability, innovation and diversification and towards a more balanced and mutually beneficial cooperation with the seven neighbouring countries, especially so the South Sudan

Professor Wohlmuth referred to the challenges and opportunities of economic and political cooperation programmes of Sudan with South Sudan which would yield high returns for the people and the economy of both countries – because of the high interdependence of the countries on oil production and oil transport issues, the economic role of the states (provinces) along the international border of Sudan and South Sudan, and the necessity to end conflicts in Sudan and in South Sudan through negotiated peace and development programmes. The end of the regime of Omar al-Bashir in Sudan may now provide a window of opportunity to start a “development-friendly” cooperation between the governments in Khartoum and Juba, and to build an alliance for peace and development along the international border between regions in Sudan and South Sudan.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth also presented his blueprint for an economic reform programme for Sudan and South Sudan as based on publications in the SERG Discussion Papers (see the links: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/ and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm). Recently, Volume 20 (for 2018) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has brought interesting articles towards a strategy on Sudan’s science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and on Sudan’s industry and agriculture policies. This part of the Yearbook on Sudan (Unit 2) builds a frame for a strategic reorientation of the Sudanese economy towards structural transformation, economic revitalization and diversification (see on this volume the links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm, and: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/, and: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy).

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12.02.2018
Advising on Global and African Studies: Reviews, Evaluations and Academic Activities

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has given advice to the Promotions Committee of the Federal University Of Technology in Akura, Nigeria. The Promotions Committee is responsible for the appointment of Professors and Associate Professors. Professor Wohlmuth was asked to evaluate candidates on the basis of their publications and overall qualifications for the position in question. It is a sophisticated multi-stages system of evaluation for the promotion to the rank of a Professor and an Associate Professor. Karl Wohlmuth was invited for this function by the Vice-President of the University and by the Head (Secretary) of the Promotions Committee. The Federal University of Technology is a leading University in Nigeria.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the Promotions Committees of the University of Khartoum (Sudan) and of the University of Juba (South Sudan) concerning appointments to Full Professorship. The University of Khartoum is on the way of reorganizing and strengthening its academic profile to regain the leading position which it had after independence among African universities. The University of Juba, as well as other universities in South Sudan, are still suffering because of the civil war in the country and the serious governance problems.

Professor Wohlmuth was also active as a reviewer of manuscripts, book proposals and articles for peer-reviewed journals. The Canadian Journal of  Development Studies asked him to review manuscripts. This journal is now a leading journal on development studies in North America. The UNU-WIDER Institute in Helsinki asked Professor Wohlmuth to review a contribution for an international journal. UNU-WIDER is the globally leading institute for development research. Professor Wohlmuth was also active for the Journal Of International Development, for the journal Comparative Economic Studies,  and for various African journals. Again, Professor Wohlmuth was asked to review proposals for book publications for the Economics Book Editions programme of Routledge Publishers.

Professor Wohlmuth was invited to advise a leading German multinational on issues of  Customer Assessment to Optimize Business Models in Africa. As there are increasing business relations with Africa, the role of different groups of customers (by size, sector, and country) is becoming more and more relevant. It is therefore important to optimize the business models in Africa accordingly. A preparatory group of the German multinational company is involved in writing the first draft of the assessment.

Professor Wohlmuth has given advice and was peer-reviewing a Strategy Document on Revitalizing Sudan which was written by Dr. Murtada Mustafa. The Strategy Document is emphasizing five core pillars (Education, Entrepreneurship, Agriculture, Industry, and Management/Civil Service), which are considered as the basis of a new development strategy for Sudan.  Dr. Murtada Mustafa was the first permanent Undersecretary of Labour in the government of Sudan. He has also had various leading functions in the International Labour Office (in Geneva, Harare, Cairo, and Khartoum). The Strategy Document will also be published in the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Papers, and it will be circulated to policymakers inside and outside of Sudan. It will be published in English and in Arabic languages.

Professor Wohlmuth is also supporting and advising two Guest Researchers at the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Bremen: The agricultural economist Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Department Of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria is in Bremen for the period 2015-2018, and the international economist Professor Chunji Yun from the Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan is in Bremen for the period September 2017 to August 2018. For both researchers this is a further stay for research programmes, in cooperation with Professor Wohlmuth, at the University of Bremen and at IWIM. Both researchers have published in the various IWIM Publications Series. Further publications are expected from this research period.

Professor Alabi is doing researches on waste management and related value chains in Nigeria (comparing such value chains with the ones in Germany) and on aspects of the agricultural transformation in Nigeria. He is also these months working as a research fellow at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington D. C. in their African Department to do research and to give advice on the E-wallet fertilizer subsidy scheme which was introduced in Nigeria by Akinwumi A. Adesina, at that time the Nigerian agriculture minister who is now the President of the African Development Bank in Abidjan. It is the purpose of the assignment to the IMF to look at the possibilities of a wider use of the Nigerian E-wallet fertilizer subsidy scheme in other African countries. Professor Alabi and Professor Wohlmuth cooperate in Bremen on editions of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook concerning aspects of Nigeria’s economic and agricultural transformation. Most recently, Unit 2 of Volume 20  (a Unit is a collection of essays for a specific theme, introduced by the editors of the Unit) was finalized on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Agricultural Transformation in Nigeria”. A strategy was outlined on the basis of the  Unit 2 by Professors Alabi and Wohlmuth.

The researches by Professor Chunji Yun centre on the European integration process. He is interested in the fact that the European Union (EU) has 28 (later after Brexit 27) employment regimes and labour policies, so that cross-border investments by firms through global and regional value chains have implications for the national employment regimes and the still national labour markets. He investigates the implications of cross-border investments on nationally organized labour markets for two sectors (automobiles and electronics). He will analyse the different sectoral structures of the value chains which are demanding different types of labour by function at different levels of skills and at different places; these cross-border investments and value chains are then leading to quite different labour market outcomes. He concentrates in his research work on the cross-border investments of German companies in the Visegrad countries to study the repercussions of the changing value chains on the national labour markets and the national labour policies in Germany and in the four Visegrad countries. Because of the fact that Bremen is a centre of production networks, such as for automobiles and automotive parts, there is also the possibility for Professor Yun to visit production sites in Bremen. Professor Wohlmuth and Professor Chun have discussed the first research report in December 2017; the second research report is due in February 2018 for a further intensive discussion and review.

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12.02.2018
Sudan: From an oil-based economy to an agriculture-based and science-based economy?

Prominent Sudanese scientists from universities and research institutions in Sudan and at UNESCO Cairo and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen are launching a new strategy for a transition of Sudan from an oil-based development path towards an agriculture-based and science-based development model. This is a part (Unit 2) of the forthcoming Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. General Issues and Country Cases”. Professor Dr. Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour and Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed an Introductory Essay to the theme under the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization - An Introduction”. The Unit 2 in Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization”  has four additional essays. Professor Samia Satti Nour presents an analysis of the national innovation system (NIS) of Sudan, by focusing on three subsystems, the education institutions subsystem, the science & technology institutions subsystem, and the ICT institutions subsystem; the weaknesses of the NIS are highlighted and an agenda for action is proposed. She also presents in a second essay an analysis about innovative industrial firms in Sudan, focussing on two internationally active Sudanese conglomerates in the food industry, on two large-sized companies (belonging to the chemical and food industries) and on two medium-sized companies (belonging to the metal and textile industries). The purpose is to assess how innovative these companies really are and how they could improve their innovation performance. It is also measured by a new analytical approach how far away these companies are from the innovation frontier, and it is analysed what the government and the private sector can do to stimulate STI in the Sudanese companies.

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), and Nazar Mohamed Hassan, from the UNESCO Cairo Office, provide an essay on the impact of agricultural research on the agriculture yields in Sudan. ENDRI has recently launched the Environment and Natural Resources International Journal (ENRIJ), with volume 1 and number 1 published in 2016 (link: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/journals/enrij/); ENDRI is a key research institution in Sudan. This essay is analysing the factors which are impeding yield increases in Sudan, but this essay is also using the example of the national crops campaigns in Egypt (such as for rice production increases) as a model of large-scale testing of agricultural research results in the field.

Finally, the Unit 2 on Sudan in Volume 20 presents an analysis by Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali from the University of Kassala and the Sudan International University (SIU) about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors in Sudan to local companies. Although the oil-based growth in Sudan has attracted mainly investment for the oil sector, foreign investment was also incoming to supply the growing Sudanese consumption market and to invest in agriculture and services sectors of Sudan. The essay on knowledge spillovers from foreign direct investors to domestic firms in Sudan gives also an agenda of how to stimulate technology transfers from foreign firms to domestic firms.

In the Introductory Essay by Professor Samia Satti Nour and by Professor Karl Wohlmuth also an Agenda for Reforms aimed at Economic Revitalization through STI Development is presented. The Strategy proposed has short-term to medium-term to long-term implications for reforming institutions and policies. Professor Samia Satti Nour is a prominent researcher on STI development. She recently has obtained a full professorship at Khartoum University (see the PDFs of the Inaugural Lecture/ICT Development in Sudan and the Inaugural Lecture/Academic Profile of and Awards to Professor Samia Satti Nour, as well as the PDF on the Abstract in English and in Arabic of her Springer Book ICT in Sudan). Professor Wohlmuth was invited to attend the inaugural meeting at the University of Khartoum. Professor Samia Satti Nour is adviser to the African Development Perspectives Yearbook programme for Volume 20 and Co-editor of Volume 20. Recently she has presented a Policy Note on the multiple Digital Divides in Africa for The Nordic Africa Institute (see the PDF: NAI Policy Note).

Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar is also Co-editor of the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is Senior Science and Technology Specialist for the Arab States in UNESCO’s Cairo Office since 2009. He has massively contributed to the Introductory Unit 1 for Volume 20 (together with Professor Karl Wohlmuth), and he has participated as a speaker at the Launch Event for volumes 18 and 19 of the Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016 at the invitation of UNECA. In the Unit 2 on Sudan for Volume 20 he contributed with an essay on the role of agricultural research for increasing agricultural yields in Sudan, an essay which was written in cooperation with Migdam E. Abdelgani.  Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar has also established the Sudan Knowledge (SK) Platform  to make the intellectual capacities of the Sudanese researchers and other experts and policymakers known more widely and to allow for a broader use of these capacities for development. The SK Platform is a strong network of researchers, policy makers, educators, consultants and employers from all parts of the world to exchange knowledge and experience and to discuss current developments and challenges. This Directory of Capacities of the Sudanese can be used to help find, support and collaborate with experts from the SK network. The Sudan Knowledge Network aims also to bring together researchers and experts from the Diaspora (see the various links: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/name/nazar-hassan/, and: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/locality/Cairo/, and: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/country/Egypt/).

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), is known for his study (in cooperation with other Sudanese researchers) about “Potential Production and Application of Biofertilizers in Sudan”, published in the Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (9), pp. 926-934, 2010 (link: www.sustech.edu/staff_publications/20100822070957958.pdf). These ideas are relevant for an agricultural transformation strategy which is part of the economic revitalization programme for Sudan.

Dr. Mohamed Elhaj Mustafa Ali, as the author on the essay about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors to domestic firms in Sudan, is lecturer at the University of Kassala and at the Sudan International University (link: http://www.siu-sd.com/). He is expert on foreign direct investment in Sudan and has recently published a Policy Brief on the relevant issues of foreign investment in Sudan in Bremen at the SERG/IWIM platforms (see the PDF: Mustafa Ali -Policy Brief). He has also published a Policy Brief for the Economic Research Forum (ERF) in Cairo on “Measures to Protect Poor Sudanese Households from the Risks of Catastrophic Health Expenditures” (see the PDF: PB28-Mustafa Ali).

There are intentions to continue to cooperate in the future on the most important issues of STI development for Sudan. The Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Paper Series is still open for researchers from Sudan to publish on these most important issues (see the links to the series: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/, and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm).

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12.02.2018
A New Development Strategy for Sudan: “Sudan in the 21st Century - Seeking Pathways Forward”

The outline of a new development strategy for Sudan was prepared by Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa. Dr. Murtada was the first permanent Undersecretary for Labour in the Sudan, the Director of the African Regional Labour Administration Centre (ARLAC) for the English-speaking African countries in Harare, Zimbabwe, and then the Director of the International Labour Office in Egypt before retiring to academic and philanthropic endeavours in Khartoum. He was educated at Addis Ababa University, Harvard University, the University of Wisconsin, Northeastern University, and the International Institute for Labour Studies in Geneva. Dr. Murtada was an early collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) in Bremen. He has supported the research work on Sudan in Bremen tremendously. Now he pays again tribute to his country by presenting to key policymakers the contours of a new development strategy for Sudan which is based on decades of experience as a civil service official and member of the Government of Sudan and as an employee and head of offices of the  ILO with working times in Khartoum, Geneva, Harare, and Cairo. Dr. Murtada has published in IWIM publication series, such as in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, but also in the IWIM Book Series (see the link to the IWIM Homepage, Publications: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/index.html).

The frame and the basic ideas for a new development strategy for Sudan are summarised below in the words of Dr.  Murtada (taken from the Strategy Paper, which will be published as the number 43 in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, with the links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm and  https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/):

The earliest studies by the International Labour Office (ILO) in conjunction with the Sudanese Government (Ministry of Labour) and the University of Bremen (SERG) in 1976 up to today repeat almost the same recommendations to enhance and improve the Sudanese economy. The recommendations were, just to mention some key ones: Improve infrastructure; develop industry; link agriculture to manufacturing; increase vocational and technical training; reform taxes to encourage industry and exports; support small industries, the vulnerable people, and remote regions; institute rule of law; ensure contract enforcement and transparency to encourage foreign investment;  and provide for sustainable economic policies via effective institutions and a responsible macroeconomic policy formation. Whether from lack of political will, leadership, economic means, or external financial investment, the neglect of all these recommendations along with conflict, civil war and international sanctions has continued to disintegrate the development options in the Sudan. After decades of conflict and civil war, the government of Sudan now faces the burden of reconstructing the country, the society and its economy, of repatriating internally displaced persons (IDPs) and providing training and jobs for them in urban and rural areas, also to replace redundant cattle-herding livelihoods and to initiate agricultural projects for food security in depleted environments. While the discovery of oil brought revenue before the great country of the Sudan split into two republics, the oil money was not properly used to expand and to develop the economy. The agricultural sector, the industrial sector, the civil service, and the education sector deteriorated from the satisfactory state they were left in by the British at independence. Although the country since independence has presented a lot of plans and programmes, implementation was always weak or non-existent.

This strategy paper by Dr. Murtada outlines changes which are necessary to get the economy back on track in five major sectors stemming from and supporting institutional revisions: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry, and management. While the short-term and the long-term solutions are outlined, the Sudanese people themselves need to pull together, to stop competing for power and land, to produce and support fresh leaders, and to begin to consider the long-term conditions of the country for the good of its own people. The Strategy Paper is structured as follows: After the Introduction (section 1) the section 2 is on Building Capacity, Growth, and Employment through Education, with Recommendations for Education. The section 3 is on Combatting Unemployment, Promoting Growth through Entrepreneurship, with Recommendations for Entrepreneurship. Section. Section 4 is on Improving Growth and Employment through Agriculture, with Recommendations for Agriculture. The section 5 is on. Growth and Employment through Industry, with Recommendations for Industry. The section 6 is on Management, by Improving Civil Service, People, Goods, and Resources, with Recommendations for Management. Section 7  is on. Results of Past Efforts and Lessons Learned. The Section 8 is Towards a New Strategy. And the final section 9 is on Conclusions, followed by References on the history of policymaking in Sudan.             

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has given advice to the author during the process of finalizing the Strategy Paper and has peer-reviewed the paper. The research on Sudan and South Sudan is continuing at the University of Bremen (see the links to the websites: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-sudan.htm and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudanforschung.htm).

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15.08.2017
Starting Points for a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is co-author of a new study on employment creation in Tunisia. This is a reworked version of the study which was published in 2016 in German, Arabic and French languages. Main issue is how to develop a new employment strategy for Tunisia amidst dangers of increasing unemployment and spreading political instability. The authors provide a frame for employment policies consisting of three strategic elements. Element One considers the long overdue need for a pro-active policy towards small and medium enterprises in Tunisia. Element Two addresses the need to integrate Tunisian enterprises in a more effective way into global and regional value chains. Element Three focuses on the need to start a broad-based reindustrialization process in Tunisia and to manage in a better way the deindustrialization process in the field of old industries. Also the trade policy and implementation issues of the proposed strategy are discussed. There is a great interest of Tunisian policymakers in this strategic approach towards employment creation. Governmental and non-governmental institutions in Tunisia and various donor agencies are working now on solid foundations for a an operational employment strategy and policy for Tunisia. The Council of Economic Advisers of Tunisia has established a working group on these issues. Despite of the importance of the employment issue not too many studies were done so far on employment policies for Tunisia.

 
Photo: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016

The National Dialogue on Employment of March 2016 raised the issue of employment creation again and presented an Eleven-Point Plan, and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon emphasized during the meeting the necessity to keep the theme of job creation at the centre of policymaking to preserve Tunisia’s democratic gains (see the report by Mabrouka M’Barek: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016, Web Access: http://www.mei.edu/content/article/more-jobs-higher-wages-essential-tunisian-growth).


The four versions of the study by the three development economists:

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien


The Study:
Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl

Starting points for a national employment strategy for Tunisia / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Dep. for Middle East and North Africa, April 2017. - 17 Seiten = 250 KB, PDF-File. - (Study / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2017
ISBN 978-3-95861-753-7
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/13336.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
[Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth]. - [Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016]. - 16 Seiten = 340 KB, PDF-File. -
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017. - Arabic text and script
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13338.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016. - 16 Seiten = 125 KB, PDF-File. - (Étude / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13337.pdf

 

 

 

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - (Studie / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016
ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

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15.08.2017
Advising on African and Global Studies: Research Projects, International Guest Researchers, Global Conferences, Evaluations, Publications

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications (see some projects below):

Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on “Industrialization based on Agricultural Development”. Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an  ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.

Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth.  It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).

Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.

Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of “Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union.” This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.

Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new “Porter Competitiveness Index”, based on Porter’s Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new “Porter Competitiveness Index” with the long-established “Global Competitiveness Index” of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.

In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.

Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan”, is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on “STI Frameworks for Africa” is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on “Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia”. Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.

Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

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