University of Bremen Development Economist Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed to the International Conference of GARS (German Aviation Research Society) with a keynote lecture on spatial development and inclusive growth in Africa (see the PDF). The professor started with a discussion on Aviation in Africa and its role for Spatial Development, and then he considered the various elements of inclusive growth and especially the relevance of spatial development as a key factor. In this context he presented the ongoing controversy about the meaning of inclusive growth. In various country case studies he outlined how spatial development could contribute to more inclusive growth and development, for example if spatial interdependencies (South Sudan) and spatial dependencies (Nigeria) are considered. In order to make spatial planning an important element of inclusive growth, it has to be embedded into overall economic and social policies (as the country cases of South Africa, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and Uganda show). Obviously the importance of spatial development as a key component of inclusive growth had been neglected far too long in development studies. It is therefore very useful that GARS has devoted two sessions of the conference to such issues (see the programme: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf ).
“Aviation in Africa” & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop
In cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S. and the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, the Centre for Public Management (zep) of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen (HSB) hosted the First Workshop on Aviation in Africa and the Annual G.A.R.S. Student Research Workshop. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on "New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters" in the Session I "New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I" which took place on Thursday, June 30th 2016, 9:15 – 10:45, Venue: City University AS Bremen, Werderstraße 73. Professor Karl Wohlmuth also participated as a panellist in Session V: Panel Discussion: Air Transport and Inclusive Growth for Africa. The panellists were: Robert Kappel (GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg), Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, University of Bremen), Ken Button (George Mason University), and Nicole Adler (Hebrew University). The Panel was chaired by Ofelia Betancor, Universidad de Las Palmas. See the Programme Details for the two Sessions: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf). The Panel Discussion also came to the conclusion that Aviation in Africa can contribute to inclusive growth and development if the sector is organized and regulated in an appropriate manner – at national, regional and continental African levels..
Reference to the PDF and the Draft Paper: Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters, Contribution to: “Aviation in Africa” & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop, 30th June to 2nd July 2016, Bremen, Presentation on Thursday, June 29th 2016, in Session I: New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I, Workshop organized by the Centre for Public Management of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen in cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S., Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Presentation (see PDF) and Draft Paper, 8 pages (see Publications Wohlmuth).
A Press Conference on Day One, a Scientific Workshop on Day Two, Visits to present the volumes at the Universities in Kigali and a Visit to the Genocide Memorial on Day Three are part of the programme (see the Preliminary Programme of the Launch Event as a Launch of Yearbook). Ms. Valentine Rugwabiza, Minister of East African Community Integration, Republic of Rwanda, will give the Keynote Presentation to launch the new editions of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Various Staff from the Ministry will have official functions in the event. Andrew Mold, Acting Director, UNECA for Eastern Africa, the Mastermind of the Event, will lead through the Event. Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, intends to publish a Documentation following the event in Kigali, Rwanda.
Tunisia is five years after the Arab Spring Revolution in the process of reforming its development model and especially so its employment policy and the related institutions. High overall unemployment rates and high unemployment rates among the graduates of tertiary and vocational education institutions reveal that the economy is not absorbing adequately its skilled labour force. In demand is in Tunisia unskilled labour and low skilled labour as these groups of the labour force have much smaller unemployment rates. The production system is since decades biased towards sectors, activities and processes which require low skilled and cheap labour. The reasons are that Tunisia has managed rather badly its deindustrialization process, the decline of the manufacturing share in GDP and the decline of the manufacturing share in overall employment. Improving the management of deindustrialization would require that the labour market and investment laws and regulations are adapted, that the STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) system is adjusted, that the tertiary and vocational education systems are reformed, and that the social security system is streamlined.
Source: North Country Public Radio/ northcountrypublicradio.org (Arab Spring Anniversary)
Intentions to reform the development model and its institutions are there, but the political process prevents concrete actions. Also, in order to increase the demand for skilled people who are unemployed or working under precarious conditions, the country needs to initiate a reindustrialization process. In the Research Report four paths of reindustrialization are discussed and contrasted: First, reindustrialization via the promotion of competitive value chains in other economic sectors than manufacturing (agriculture, services, mining, etc.) is a promising route which could create a great number of jobs. Obviously, the sector policies are not employment-promoting. Second, reindustrialization via exploiting the potential for manufacturing in remote regions of the country (as manufacturing is largely concentrated in some coastal regions) is another viable option. Regional development incentives have obviously not worked towards creating employment in manufacturing sectors through a new inter-regional division of labour. Third, reindustrialization via new forms of integration into global value chains is a further important option. Tunisia has a large number of scientists and researchers and around 700 science, research & development institutions, but does not exploit this potential for global value chains which put to use the skills base and the research potential of the country. Fourth, Tunisia has great opportunities to reindustrialize via the development of “green growth industries” as the protection of its natural resources is important for sustainable development. In various environment-sensitive sectors employment can be generated through “green growth initiatives”. Examples are areas such as organic agriculture, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, sustainable construction, and a better management of solid waste. All these areas offer a lot of opportunities up to new value chains and an increase in the demand for skills.
The Research Report is a Background Study, being part of a Joint Consultancy Contract. It is expected that short and long versions of the study can be published soon. The study relates also to the ongoing work on economic reforms in Tunisia by Karl Wohlmuth (see Publications Wohlmuth and STI Policies Tunisia: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ ).
Reference to the Study:
Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Orientations for a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Teil 1 (Part 1): Management von De-Industrialisierung und Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung (Management of Deindustrialization and Initiation of Policies at Reindustrialization), Forschungsbericht im Ökonomische Reformen in Tunesien-Projekt (Research Report in the Project Economic Reforms in Tunisia), diverse Lang- und Kurzfassungen des Forschungsberichts werden veröffentlicht (various long and short versions of the Research Report will be published soon), Manuskript (Manuscript), 45 Seiten (pages), unveröffentlichter Text (unpublished text), erscheint im Dezember 2016 als Nummer 127 der Blauen Discussion Papers Reihe des IWIM der Universität Bremen (forthcoming as Number 127 of the Blue Series Discussion Papers, IWIM, University of Bremen, 45 pages, December 2016), unter dem Titel/under the title: Das Management der De-Industrialisierung und die Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (The Management of De-Industrialization and the Initiation of Policies for Reindustrialization. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia).
Link zu den Publikationen/ Link to the Publications (vgl./see: Publications Wohlmuth) und/and Link zum Tunesien-Projekt/ Link to the Tunisia Project (vgl./see: https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ )
Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for the year 2017 is already available in the bookshops. In Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies” major strategic and policy issues are analysed. The guiding issue is how to make trade and investment policies in Africa relevant for structural change. It is asked how these policies can support structural transformation through more policy coherence, strict implementation of programmes and a future-oriented development management approach. So far these policies are not fully coordinated with other key policy areas, like sector policies, competition and technology policies, private sector policies, regional and spatial policies, labour and equity policies, and policies to strengthen global value chains. Also severe implementation problems have affected the impact of trade and investment policies. The lack of future-oriented trade and investment policies has led for Africa to missed opportunities in global trade and investment integration.
The focus in Volume 19 is, first, on new trade policies in Africa for structural change. The framework of coherent and comprehensive trade policies is presented; the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural export trade is analysed; and the divergence between planned and actual export diversification strategies is discussed. Second, another focus in Volume 19 is on new investment policies in Africa for structural change. It is investigated how investment policies could be redirected towards major economic sectors, like agriculture and manufacturing. It is also asked how oil-exporting countries can strengthen their industrial policy towards export diversification. It is also analysed how global value chains can be strengthened by appropriate policies. Third, there is a section in Volume 19 with book reviews and book notes being related to the themes of volumes 18 and 19.
Complementary to Volume 19 is Volume 18 with the title “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration”. Based on Africa’s deep routed structural problems the key aspect of a more transformative regional integration process is how to promote structural transformation by adapted strategies and policies for the whole region.
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project started in 1989 with volume 1 on Human Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa. Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has become the leading English-language publication on African Development Issues in Germany.
Launch Event in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016: UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa) and the University of Bremen will launch the two recent volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in a three days ceremony in Kigali, Rwanda. Speakers from the United Nations, from the Government of Rwanda, from universities in Rwanda, from various media, and the management staff of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen will launch in their statements the new editions. A Press Conference on Day One, a Workshop on Day Two and a Visit to the Universities in Kigali and to the Genocide Memorial on Day Three are part of the programme (see the Preliminary Programme of the Launch Event as a Launch of the Yearbook). Ms. Valentine Rugwabiza, Minister of East African Community, Republic of Rwanda, will give the Keynote Presentation to launch the new editions of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.
More information about the new publication:
The Book is available as a Hardcopy Edition and as an E-Book Edition.
How to order the book? See: http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-643-90785-1 The other volumes in the Series: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm About the Research Group on African Development Perspectives: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm and https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven/ Entry about the African Development Perspectives Yearbook at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Development_Perspectives_Yearbook
In this volume a new approach is envisaged. Based on Africa’s deep routed structural problems the key aspect of a transformative regional integration is how to promote structural transformation by adapted strategies and policies for the whole region. In this context the African Regional Economic Communities (RECs), but also the Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) and the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) are evaluated. Specific problems of a more transformative regional integration agenda are discussed (food security and agriculture; industry, enterprise growth and competition; and more favourable agreements with extra-regional partners, like the Economic Partnership Agreements with ECOWAS and ECA). Also, three global value chains (for diamonds, shea butter, and sesame) are related to their regional and sub-regional impacts in Africa. The potential contribution to a more transformative regional integration process is discussed.
Complementary to Volume 18 is Volume 19 with the title “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies”. Two major issues are discussed – first, the role of “New Trade Policies in Africa for Structural Change” and second, the role of “New Investment Policies in Africa for Structural Change”. The contribution to a more transformative regional integration agenda for Africa is presented. Volume 19 for 2017 is due to appear in September 2016.
Experts from UNECA/Addis Ababa/Kigali, UNCTAD/Geneva, FAO/Rome, ECDPM/Maastricht, TRALAC/Stellenbosch, and many other researchers from universities in Africa and Europa have presented detailed analyses. Experts from Sudan, Ghana, South Africa, and Botswana have presented analytic essays and country cases. The cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development/UNCTAD, Head of the Trade and Poverty Branch, was important as he brought in the concept of a more Transformative Regional Integration. Professor Karl Wohlmuth/University of Bremen, Patrick N. Osakwe/UNCTAD and Isabelle Ramdoo/ECDPM have written introductory essays to the three major Units of the Volume 18. It was proposed by UNECA to present the volumes 18 (for 2015/16) and 19 (for 2017) at a Launch Event in Kigali, Rwanda. Preparations for the Launch Event are ongoing.
The Research Group on African Development Perspectives has opened the International Call for Papers for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Major theme for Volume 20 is “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa”. Guest Editors and Contributors are invited to cooperate with the Research Group on this volume (see the International Call for Papers). Main issues proposed for the volume are outlined in detail in the International Call for Papers. Beside of analytical studies and empirical assessments of African National Innovation systems and reports on the working of STI Policies in African countries, a deep country focus is planned for Tunisia, Sudan, South Africa, Kenya, Cameroon, and Nigeria. Important is also the policy focus of the contributions to Volume 20. Please send your Abstract as soon as possible!
Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2015 has the title: “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration”. The main issue is how regional integration in Africa can become more transformative.
Volume 18 will be published in early 2016. The three Units (Parts) of Volume 18 are:
Unit 1: Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa
Unit 2: Specific Policy Issues of Regional Integration in Africa
Unit 3: Global Value Chains and Regional Impacts in Africa
Patrick N. Osakwe, Head, Trade and Poverty Branch, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Geneva, Switzerland, and
Isabelle Ramdoo, Deputy Head of the Economic Transformation and Trade Programme at the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) in Maastricht, The Netherlands, have joined for Volume 18 the Editorial Committee of the Professors Tobias Knedlik (Managing Editor), Achim Gutowski (Book Review Editor) and Karl Wohlmuth (Volume Editor).
Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2016/17 has the title “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies”. The main issue is how trade and foreign investment can support structural transformation in Africa.
Volume 19 will also be published in 2016. The three Units (Parts) of Volume 19 are:
Unit 1: New Trade Policies in Africa for Structural Change
Unit 2: New Investment Policies in Africa for Structural Change
Unit 3: Book Reviews and Book Notes
Oyebanke Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Professor of Economics, Columbia University, New York, U.S.A, and with Dalberg Global Development Advisors, and
Reuben A. Alabi, Professor of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, and Guest Professor and Project Director at IWIM for the period 2015-2017, have joined for Volume 19 the Editorial Committee of the Professors Tobias Knedlik (Managing Editor), Achim Gutowski (Book Review Editor) and Karl Wohlmuth (Volume Editor).
See on the African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm , and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-adpy.htm , and https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ , and https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven/ .
According to continent-wide analyses and country-specific information Africa’s Middle Class has grown rapidly in the past two decades, and a further growth is anticipated. Although there are great differences in measurement, based on income, consumption and wealth indicators, the respective ranges for defining the middle class differ widely and matter when separating the middle class from the poor and the rich in Africa. The empirical evidence points to a further growth of Africa’s middle class, but the views on the development impacts of this growth differ. In the discussion among the Africanists quite often a link is made between the growth of the African Middle Class and the economic growth in Africa. The “Africa Rising” story is based on the expectation that there will be high economic growth rates in Africa also in the future and that Africa’s Middle Class will fuel it. Because of the importance of this link it is necessary to assess critically these growth perspectives. This is done in a new book “The Rise of Africa’s Middle Class”, to be published in 2016 by Zed Books. It is edited by Professor Henning Melber, Senior Advisor/Director Emeritus, The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala/Sweden and Guest Professor at various universities in Africa and Europe.
The Rise of Africa's Middle ClassISBN: 9781783607136 (Paper)
ISBN: 9781783607143 (Cloth)
Professor Oluyele Akinkugbe, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen have contributed to this book with a chapter on “Africa's Middle Class, Africa's Entrepreneurs and the Missing Middle”. This study is based on researches about the growth of Africa’s Middle Class and the impacts on the development of Africa’s Entrepreneurship. Specifically, the chapter investigates the role of Africa’s Middle Class for closing the “Missing Middle”, the gap between the few large and the many small and informal enterprises in Africa. The question is raised if the growth of Africa’s Middle Class will contribute to the growth of African enterprises so that the “Missing Middle” development trap can be overcome. An analysis of African enterprises and entrepreneurs is presented, by type of economic characteristics (survival versus growth-oriented enterprises) and by type of economic motivation (necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurs). The purpose of the analysis is to assess if the growth of Africa’s Middle Class will create a viable entrepreneurship sector and a dynamic class of entrepreneurs. Also the role of development policy is investigated in this context; it is asked if and how public development policies can support the growth of African enterprises and of a dynamic African entrepreneurial class and to what extent these are rooted in the growing African middle class (see the link to the new book on “The Rise of Africa’s Middle Class” at Zed Publishers: http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/R/bo25073345.html ). Professor Karl Wohlmuth has presented in 2014 the study “African Lions, African Tigers, and Emerging African Middle Classes – A Very Skeptical Note Extended” (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/files/dateien/1401_african_lions_sceptical.pdf ). In this study the “Africa Rising” story is critically examined and related to the growth of Africa’s Middle Class.
The cooperation of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives at IWIM with a group of professors from ENIT/El Manar University in Tunis has seen major events in the year 2015. The Research Group is supporting the "Engineering and Technology Policy/ETP" study programme at ENIT. Outstanding event was the Expert Seminar held in Bremen. Six professors from ENIT participated over a full week at the Expert Seminar in Bremen to be informed about "The Regional Innovation System (RIS) of the Country State of Bremen, Germany: Actors, Institutions, Policies, and Processes" (see the Programme of the Expert Seminar and the Introductory Presentation by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, the organizer of the Expert Seminar in Bremen).
The involved universities and research institutes in Bremen and the press reported intensively about the Seminar; see the reports by the University of Bremen (PDF May 2015 and PDF December 2014), and the Interview with Professor Karl Wohlmuth about the project in the Magazine of the University of Bremen from July 2015, BUS Number 139 (PDF BUS 139), the reports by the University of Applied Sciences Bremen with the links: http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2015/detail/index_51758.html and http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2015/detail/index_51417.html , the report by DAAD in their Press Service with the link: http://www.pressebox.com/pressrelease/hochschule-bremen/Anregungen-fuer-die-Modernisierung-von-Bildung-Forschung/boxid/739986 , the report in the local press (PDF 1 und PDF 2), and the report on the event titled "Wissenschaftsdelegation aus Tunesien zu Besuch am BIBA" by the BIBA LogDynamics Newsletter of June 2015 with the Link: http://www.logdynamics.de/newsletter.html . The Minutes of the Expert Seminar (Minutes) and the Photo Gallery (Access via Dropbox) about the event are also made available. The Dropbox is in the order of the days of the Expert Seminar (Programme). A short version of the Minutes of the Fact Finding Mission to ENIT by the German core group from November 2014 is also available (see the Minutes of the Fact Finding Mission).
Professor Karl Wohlmuth was interviewed by the BUS Magazine of the University of Bremen about the Cooperation Project Bremen-Tunis (see BUS July 2015, Number 139)
Another important activity was the participation of Professor Achim Gutowski, as a representative of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, at the UNESCO International Workshop "Inter-university networking for capacity-building in STI policy: Towards a comprehensive African master programme at the ENIT" in Hammamet, Tunisia (see the reports by UNESCO on the meeting and on the ETP programme with the links: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/unesco_working_to_strengthen_capacities_in_sti_policy/#.ViSw2m73EdU and http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/events/all-events/?tx_browser_pi1[showUid]=31206&cHash=87c0b463af ; all the documents for the International Workshop and about the ETP programme at ENIT can be downloaded as well as the Photo Gallery). The project is part of UNESCO's Priority Africa Programme.
Source: UNESCO, UNESCO's Priority Africa Programme
The documents are also available in PDF format: the List of participants, the Concept note, the ETP programme, the Workshop Booklet, and the Official Photo of the International Delegates .The Photo Gallery of the Meeting in Hammamet is accessible at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/127450990@N05/sets/72157654594903029/ . Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski was appointed as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of UNESCO for this project. The media coverage of the event in Hammamet and about the ETP programme was great (see the following entries: http://www.leconomistemaghrebin.com/tag/enit/ and https://www.facebook.com/etp.enit and http://www.taasti.org/etp/fr/documents.html and http://kapitalis.com/tunisie/2015/06/15/universite-lenit-lance-le-1er-master-en-politiques-des-sti/ and http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/events/all-events/?tx_browser_pi1[showUid]=31206&cHash=87c0b463af ). A detailed plan for the workshop follow-up was agreed upon since, and an online platform for STI collaboration was installed, with IWIM being part of it. At the workshop, an agreement was reached to establish a "community of practice" (COP), an online collaborative space, named the "Inter-academic network for capacity-building in STI policy". This will be a platform to share resources and learning/teaching tools among the many partners to the project.
Source: TAASTI, Workshop on Inter Academic networking for STI Policy
Other activities ongoing are the works on the MOOC programme, an Online Course on the Innovation System of the Country State of Bremen; responsible experts for this task from the German side are Professor Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, and Dr. Yildiray Ogurol, Head of the Media Center of the University of Bremen; Professor M'Henni and Professor Thouraya Guizani are the responsible persons for the Tunisian side to do the work on the MOOC. An International Conference in Tunis is planned by Professor Jelel Ezzine, ENIT/TAASTI. The main theme will be: "STI Policies in Tunisia and Economic Changes in the Region".
Im Europäischen Parlament wird jetzt sowohl im Handelsausschuss als auch im Entwicklungsausschuss über die vereinbarten Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) diskutiert (vgl. die Passagen zu den Rechtsgrundlagen einer Befassung des Europäischen Parlaments in den Europaverträgen: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_6.2.3.html ). Diese Abkommen sollen das Verhältnis zwischen der EU und den AKP-Staaten neu bestimmen. Bereits seit dem Jahr 2000 (Cotonou-Abkommen) wird über diese neue Form der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit verhandelt. Aber auch im Jahr 2015 ist dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen. Einige Abkommen sind zwar seit dem Jahr 2014 ausverhandelt, aber noch nicht ratifiziert geschweige denn implementiert. Viele Fragen sind noch offen, sowohl auf afrikanischer Seite als auch auf europäischer Seite. Bis zuletzt versuchten die AKP-Länder, Alternativen zu den EPAs durchzusetzen, doch ohne Erfolg (vgl. dazu die Position der AKP-Länder vom April 2014: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/433843/EXPO-DEVE_ET%282014%29433843_EN.pdf ). Zu diesem Thema wird nach wie überaus kontrovers diskutiert, auch in Bremen.
Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei seinem Vortrag über die Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) mit Afrika
Am 11. Juni 2015 fand im EuropaPunktBremen eine interessante und kontroverse Diskussion über Chancen und Risiken der „Economic Partnership Agreements“ (EPA) statt. Der Entwicklungsökonom Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, Universität Bremen) stellte den historischen Hintergrund und den aktuellen Stand der Verhandlungen zwischen der Europäischen Union und fünf regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in Afrika dar (vgl. die PDF von Prof. Karl Wohlmuth). Es handelt sich um die westafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft ECOWAS, die Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft SADC im südlichen Afrika, die Ostafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft EAC, die zentralafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft und den Gemeinsamen Markt für das östliche und südliche Afrika ESA. Aber nur in zwei Abkommen der EU mit regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften sind alle afrikanischen Mitgliedsländer vertreten (ECOWAS und EAC). Daher kann nur in diesen beiden regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften die regionale Integration durch die EPAs unterstützt werden. Es ist den beiden afrikanischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in den letzten Verhandlungsrunden aber gelungen, die vorgeschlagenen EPA-Vertragstexte deutlich zu verbessern (durch Ausnahmen von der geforderten Handelsliberalisierung, Schutzklauseln, Regionalfonds, Dialogforen, etc.). Professor Wohlmuth ging daher besonders auf die Beispiele des ECOWAS-EPA und des EAC-EPA ein, da diese Abkommen doch einige interessante innovative Elemente enthalten und wesentliche Kritikpunkte ausräumen, die zurecht moniert worden sind (vgl. als Beispiel den aktuellen Vertragstext des ECOWAS-EPA: http://twnafrica.org/ECOWAS%20WA%20&%20EU%20EPA%20draft%20text%20as%20at%20Feb%202014.pdf ). Aus einem reinen Freihandelsabkommen ist dadurch ein Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen geworden.
Der Abgeordnete für Bremen im Europäischen Parlament, Dr. Joachim Schuster (SPD), ergänzte diese Darstellung um die Berichterstattung aus dem Handelsausschuss des Parlaments, dessen Mitglied er ist. Ein Schwerpunkt der Diskussion in Bremen war die Frage, wie es gelingen kann, die angestrebte Handelsliberalisierung (sofortige vollständige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der EU und mittel- bis langfristige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der afrikanischen Wirtschaftsregionen) an die Bedingungen der Einführung sozialer, humanitärer sowie demokratiestärkender Maßnahmen in den afrikanischen Ländern zu knüpfen. In der Diskussion verdeutlichte sich, dass schon diese Verhandlungsposition der EU bei der Ausgestaltung von Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen mit Afrika alles andere als einfach ist. Hinzu kommt der globale Konkurrenzdruck von Ländern anderer Regionen, wie Indien oder China, die mitunter mit sehr attraktiven Angeboten anstreben, in den afrikanischen Markt zu drängen und die Länder in neue wirtschaftliche Abhängigkeiten zu bringen. Auch die Rolle der USA in Afrika wird gerade neu bestimmt. Auch darauf muss die EU eine Antwort finden. Die EPAs bieten nach Ansicht von Prof. Wohlmuth daher eine Chance, die Wirtschaftsbeziehungen mit Afrika grundlegend neu - und zudem vertraglich mit Bindungswirkung für beide Seiten - zu bestimmen. Dr. Joachim Schuster betonte besonders den erwarteten Beitrag zur nachhaltigen, demokratischen, friedensstiftenden und sozialen Entwicklung in Afrika.
In der Beurteilung von Chancen und Risiken der Bestimmungen der WTO als Basis für solche Abkommen zeigte sich dennoch eine unterschiedliche Einschätzung zwischen den Diskutanten. Während Professor Wohlmuth den Aspekt des Schutzes von Mindestnormen durch WTO-Bedingungen betonte, zeigte sich Dr. Joachim Schuster hier skeptischer und fordert eindeutige soziale und demokratische Verpflichtungen aller Verhandlungspartner, beispielsweise durch Einbindung auch zivilgesellschaftlicher Gruppen aus den beteiligten Ländern in die Verhandlungen. Dies wird auch und insbesondere in der Phase der Implementierung der EPAs wichtig werden. Die Veranstaltung war gut besucht und zeichnete sich durch eine lebhafte Diskussion aus (vgl. zu den Berichten über Inhalte und Ablauf der Diskussion die folgenden Mitteilungen der veranstaltenden Institutionen: http://www.europa.bremen.de/detail.php?gsid=bremen97.c.12254.de&asl=bremen97.c.3173.de und http://aia-bremen.de/ und http://joachim-schuster.eu/veranstaltung-zu-freihandelsabkommen-der-eu-mit-den-afrikanischen-staaten/#more-1724 ).
Professor Karl Wohlmuth in der Diskussion mit dem Publikum über die Folgen der EPAs
Von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven, die Professor Karl Wohlmuth am IWIM leitet, wird zu dem Thema demnächst der Band 18 des African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgegeben, in dem es um die EPAs und um neue transformative Strategien der regionalen Integration in Afrika geht. Die Mitherausgeberin des Bandes 18 des Jahrbuchs, Isabelle Ramdoo vom European Centre for Development Policy Management/ECDPM in Maastricht, Niederlande, und ihr Kollege Dr. San Bilal haben kürzlich zum Verhandlungsstand bei den EPAs und zu den Perspektiven der EU-AKP-Kooperation eine informative Studie herausgegeben (vgl. dazu: http://ecdpm.org/wp-content/uploads/Great_Insights_Vol3_Issue9_Oct-Nov_2014.pdf ). Der Dialog über die EPAs soll in Bremen fortgesetzt werden.
Again Professor Alabi, Guest professor at IWIM, was invited to an AERC conference in Addis Ababa to report on ongoing researches about “Pro-poorness of fertilizer and agrochemical use and its implications on food security in Nigeria”. He has developed at IWIM a methodology to analyze the pro-poorness of fertilizer subsidies from the side of state and federal governments in Nigeria. He will participate at the AERC Biannual Research Workshop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in November/December 2015 for a full week; he will give presentations and he will participate at discussions. AERC is a leading research foundation for the support of African scientists to become part of the international research community. The invitation was presented to him by the Executive Director of AERC in Nairobi, Kenya.
As an AGRODEP member, Professor Reuben A. Alabi was invited to attend a high level “Applied Panel Data Econometrics” training course. The AGRODEP/IFPRI Dakar Management Team has selected Professor Alabi from a long list of candidates. The training workshop took place in Dakar, Senegal, on September 7-11, 2015. AGRODEP (African Growth & Development Policy) Modelling Consortium, facilitated by IFPRI, is an institution to support African agricultural economists. The programme is supported by the prestigious IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) in Washington D.C. (see the Link to AGRODEP: http://www.agrodep.org/ ). The aims of AGRODEP are self-described as follows: “The African Growth and Development Policy Modelling Consortium is an initiative aimed at positioning African experts to take a leadership role in the study of strategic development questions and the broader agricultural growth and policy debate facing African countries.” and “AGRODEP maintains repositories of economic models and data sets, related documentation and research output available to all Network Members.”
Professor Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria and IWIM, University of Bremen, and Adams Oshobugie Ojor Adams, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, presented a research report on “The Pro-Poorness of Fertilizer Subsidy and its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria” (see the Research Report and the Agenda of the Conference in Arusha, Tanzania) at the Biannual AERC Research Workshop. An AERC Plenary Session on “Sovereign Wealth Funds and Natural Resource Management in Africa” and five Research Groups Meetings were held from May 31-June 4, 2015 in Arusha, Tanzania.
Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, presented the paper “The Case of Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Germany: Practical Lessons for Nigeria based on the Country State of Bremen” at the 2nd International Summit: Waste Summit 2015, Financing Management In Developing Economies, 22nd - 24th April 2015, Lagos, Nigeria (see the Extended Abstract). The Waste Summit was organized by the Waste Management Society Of Nigeria (WAMASON) and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). These are leading environmental organizations in Nigeria (see the two websites: http://www.environmental-expert.com/companies/waste-management-society-of-nigeria-wamason-24860 and http://www.iswa.org/ ). Professor Reuben A. Alabi is the Project Director of the Research Programme “Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany: Comparing Waste Management Value Chains” at IWIM, University of Bremen. At Lagos, the Paper and a Power Point Presentation were given. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is Consultant and Senior Advisor in the Project since January 2015. The duration of the Project is through end of 2017.