Technologie und Weltwirtschaftliche Entwicklung

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15.08.2017
“Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" – this is the title of two forthcoming volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook

“Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" – this is the title of two forthcoming volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook which are prepared now by a group of international experts. The Editorial Committee of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has decided to split the scheduled volume 20 (for 2018) into two volumes, the volume 20 (for 2018) and the volume 21 (for 2019). This was considered as advisable because of the great number of high quality submissions of manuscripts to the Editors. While Volume 20 will consider Basic Issues of STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) policies in Africa and Country Cases for Sub-Saharan Africa, the Volume 21 will present Issues of Human Resources Development in the Digital Age, Country Cases for North Africa, and Book Reviews and Book Notes.

In Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook essays on the linkages of inclusive growth, sustainable development and STI policies will be presented in the Introductory Unit. Also successful cases of STI development in Africa and STI systemic issues will be analysed. Focus countries are Sudan and Nigeria. Professor Samia Satti Nour, Khartoum University, Sudan and Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria and currently Guest Researcher at IWIM/University of Bremen, were nominated as co-editors of the Units on Sudan and Nigeria and as Volume Editors; both have accepted the invitation. UNESCO Regional Science Policy Adviser Hassan Nazar, UNESCO Cairo Office, Egypt will be the co-editor of the Unit on Basic Issues of STI policies in Africa.

For Volume 21 (2019) essays are prepared for a Unit on Human Resources Development in Africa in the Digital Age, based on case studies for Cameroon and Nigeria. Country cases in North Africa are Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria. As usual, a strong Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes rounds up the Volume 21. Again, UNESCO Regional Science Policy Adviser Hassan Nazar, UNESCO Office Cairo, Egypt will be the co-editor of the Unit on North Africa. Professor Achim Gutowski is again responsible for the Unit with Book Reviews and Book Notes. Professor Tobias Knedlik as the Managing Editor and Professor Karl Wohlmuth as the Scientific Co-ordinator are the other volume editors for the two forthcoming issues.

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook has over the decades - the first volume has appeared in 1989 – become the major English-language publication on Africa in Germany. The response to the  annual International Calls for Papers is huge, with an increasing interest on the side of African experts and experts from international and regional African organisations. UNCTAD/ Geneva, UNESCO/ Cairo, and the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF)/Nairobi, Kenya are the institutional cooperation partners for these two volumes. UNECA in Kigali, Rwanda has organized the book launch for the volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook in October 2016. This was a great event, with TV appearances in 48 African countries. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, which is editing the Yearbook, is also involved in researches, advisory work, and training activities. In 2019 the Research Group will celebrate the “30 years birthday ceremony” of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

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15.08.2017
Advising on African and Global Studies: Research Projects, International Guest Researchers, Global Conferences, Evaluations, Publications

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications (see some projects below):

Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on “Industrialization based on Agricultural Development”. Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an  ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.

Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth.  It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).

Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.

Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of “Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union.” This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.

Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new “Porter Competitiveness Index”, based on Porter’s Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new “Porter Competitiveness Index” with the long-established “Global Competitiveness Index” of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.

In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.

Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan”, is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on “STI Frameworks for Africa” is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on “Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia”. Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.

Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

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14.08.2017
Global Value Chains in African Development – A Guide for Policymakers

The debate about the role of global value chains (GVCs) in African development is still ongoing. All international and regional development organizations have something to say on these issues, and there are proposals and demands addressed to African policymakers how they could use the integration into GVCs for income growth, productivity growth, employment creation, poverty reduction, and trade diversification. GVCs are now considered as a major tool to reach inclusive growth in Africa. World Bank and OECD refer to inclusive GVCs; the African Economic Outlook for 2014 (by OECD, African Development Bank, and UNDP) links GVCs with successful industrialization in Africa; the World Economic Forum refers to policies which allow for tapping the potential of GVCs for African development; ILO investigates the employment opportunities being associated with a deeper integration into GVCs; OECD, WTO and World Bank analyse the challenges, opportunities, and policy implications of GVCs; OECD addresses those instruments which may help policymakers in developing countries to pursue their GVC agenda; UNCTAD outlines policies to integrate developing countries’ SMEs (small and medium enterprises) into GVCs; WTO addresses the tasks of policymakers to manage GVCs in a changing world economy; UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-ESA) looks at ways to strengthen capacities of policymakers to develop competitive value chains; the African Development Bank considers the options of policymakers for climbing value chains; UNIDO relates GVCs to agroindustry development; and UNECA looks at policy implications for promoting global value chains (GVCs) and regional value chains (RVCs).The list could be continued, as there is a rich collection of guidelines available now for promoting integration of local enterprises into GVCs.

Professor  Karl Wohlmuth has published a report in the journal “Berichte” to synthesize some of these views. The report is done in the form of a Guide for Policymakers enabling them to exploit by coherent policies the opportunities for African Development of integrating local enterprises into GVCs. The report draws on recommendations of international organizations and on lessons from case studies which were written for the volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

 

Bibliographic Information:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Global Value Chains and African Development – Key Issues addressed to Policymakers, pages 4-30, “Berichte”, 2016, Volume 26, Number 210, ISSN 1022-3258, Berlin, IWVWW e. V.

The report has two parts. In part one basic issues of global value chains (GVCs) when interacting with African local economies are discussed. Major questions are: How can Africa develop capabilities and preconditions for a beneficial integration of its producers into global value chains? What do we know about the depth and the forms of Africa’s integration into regional and global value chains? Are the sub-regional and local development impacts of Africa’s participation in regional and global value chains gainful? In order to guide the policymakers on GVCs it is necessary to collect information on these issues first.

In part two some strategic implications of the analysis are presented, with the purpose to formulate the core elements of the guideline. Five priority areas for action emerge and have to be considered by policymakers so that the African country and its enterprises can gain from global value chains (GVCs): First priority is, Developing the Key Capabilities for GVC Participation; second priority is, Identifying the Power Structures within the GVCs; third priority is, Assessing the Relevance of the Various Transmission Channels; fourth priority is, Using more fully the GVC Anchors and GVC Hubs in Africa; and fifth priority is, Making Regional Integration work for deeper GVC Participation. Important is the way how these five elements are bundled together in a comprehensive strategy by the policymakers.

All these five strategic imperatives have high cost in terms of administrative burden, manpower needs, leadership, and visionary power. So, it can be envisaged that for many African countries integration into global value chains (GVCs) will remain a dream, not becoming reality in the next few years. Other countries are developing and exploiting such potentials to integrate their enterprises into GVCs, like some North African and South African countries, and some few West African and East African countries, but this will be a select list of countries. However, even the successful countries in Africa will make progress in regard of GVCs only with regard of some product niches, some tasks, specific sectors and sub-regions, and a select group of enterprises. It will be necessary for all of them to learn from small successes and not to be discouraged.

Volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with case studies on Global Value Chains:

 

 


The report benefitted from the lessons of several case studies in volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook (see above, and see the link to the Publisher and to the Editor of the Yearbook volumes: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy and http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/). Country cases for Sudan, The Gambia, Ghana, Tunisia, and Botswana highlight the preconditions for a successful integration into GVCs, in terms of macroeconomic policy formation, human resources development, trade and industry policy formation, spatial development policies, and technology and innovation policy formation.

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06.07.2016
Reindustrialization of Tunisia: Towards equitable and sustainable development, and further democracy, Conference in Hammamet, 12-13 February 2016
The Conference on “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” in Hammamet, which was organized by our Tunisian partners ENIT and TAASTI in Tunis, was a success (see the Programme PDF ReindusConf-Booklet and the Abstracts PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts). The DAAD has financed the participation of eight researchers from Bremen, mainly from the University of Bremen. The theme of “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” was discussed by Tunisian and German economists. Also representatives of Tunisian Ministries, Employers Federations, Private Businesses and NGOs were invited as speakers. The whole conference was  recorded by the TAASTI team so as to have lecture material for the ETP Master course at ENIT in Tunis. As the employment situation is quite serious in Tunisia, especially so the situation of the youth and of the academic and vocational training graduates, the discussion about reindustrialization and employment generation options was timely.

 


The Conference Delegates Met at the Sentido Phenicia Hotel  in Hammamet, Tunisia

 

The Conference started with a panel discussion. The panellists, among them Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, discussed about the “Role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”. Professor Karl Wohlmuth emphasized ten key global industrial megatrends, as industrial development is shaped by strong global driving forces, such as digitalization, miniaturization, multi-faceted globalization, deeper forms of global value chain networking, intelligent (smart) specialization, use and spread of green technologies, industrial production through new technologies for saving resources, recycling and reusing materials, adapting to diversified and rapidly changing consumer preferences, and new forms of flexible production and labour use.

 



The Panellists discuss about the “Role of STI for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”

 

A representative from the Ministry of Industry spoke about new industrial policy initiatives in Tunisia. Although the Ministry of Industry has in some industrial policy areas a lead role, many other Ministries and Agencies have a say on industrial development. Therefore, Policy Forums were considered as important so as to address the inter-sectoral issues of Reindustrialization in Tunisia.

 



A presentation about the “Industrial Development Initiatives of the Tunisian Ministry of Industry”

 

The professors from the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen gave presentations on key Reindustrialization issues. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave two presentations. In the first presentation he discussed the causes of deindustrialization in Tunisia and the various options for reindustrialization; a new strategy for industrial development has to be based on pro-active STI policies (see the PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). In the second presentation Professor Wohlmuth made proposals for the establishment of STI Policy Forums for guiding the reindustrialization process in Tunisia (see the PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum).

 


Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation about “Deindustrialization and Reindustrialization in Tunisia”

 



Professor Karl Wohlmuth during his presentation about the “Role of STI Policy Forums in Tunisia”

 

Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass gave a presentation on “Strengthening the Role of Global Value Chains for a Successful Reindustrialization Process in Tunisia”; as Tunisia has lost in economic complexity in recent years; new approaches are needed to reverse this trend. Professor Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg/IWIM Bremen, spoke about “Financing Innovations in Tunisia and Germany”; as Tunisia has a financing gap in industrial innovations of the private sector, there is great interest in the modes how Germany is promoting innovation financing.

 


Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass spoke about the “Strategies to Strengthen the Integration of Tunisia into Global Industry Value Chains”

 

 

Professor Gutowski gave a presentation about “Financing Innovations in Germany and Tunisia”


All over the conference sessions there was a lively discussion. For the Master students of the ETP programme at ENIT in Tunis a Foresight Analysis course was held as a closing session of the conference (financed by DAAD). New instruments of foresight analyses were presented as well as results from foresight studies concerning future global industrial development patterns.


Towards a New Development Model for Tunisia – A Precondition for Reindustrialization

A major outcome of the conference in Hammamet was the insight that Tunisia has to overcome the development model inherited form Ben Ali so as to solve the major economic and social problems. Five years after the Revolution this task is not achieved. The Conference Lectures started with a speech by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, IWIM, University of Bremen, Germany. He introduced in his presentation the theme “Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and the Contribution of Coherent Industry and STI Policies: What are the Tasks ahead for Tunisia?”. In his presentation he considered key issues of Tunisia’s economic transformation process. The Tunisian Government is on the way to design a new development model so as to overcome the pre-revolution economic structures and modalities of policy-making (“Ben Ali legacy”). Based on the HRV (Hausmann/Rodrik/Velasco) decision tree to find out the most binding constraints to growth, the Tunisian government and international experts acknowledge that the “low appropriability” of the returns to private business activity is still the most important barrier causing low levels of investment and employment generation in the country.

As “low appropriability” of the returns to investment is caused by many factors (corruption, incoherent economic policies, confiscatory high levels of total tax rates, arbitrary administrative decision-making, lack of competition, advantages of political connectivity, privileges of state-owned enterprises, delays in implementing reforms, and excessive costs of regulation due to oversized bureaucratic structures, etc.), the task of establishing a new development model is extremely complex. Other factors retarding growth are also considered, such as human capital, infrastructure, innovation, finance, macro and micro risks, but these factors are not considered as binding as the “low appropriability” of private returns to investment factor is. On this basis Professor Karl Wohlmuth discussed the deindustrialization process of Tunisia and the options for reindustrialization, reflecting also on the role of pro-active STI policies for Tunisia  (see the full text of synopsis in PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts and Presentation PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). Although there is an ongoing debate on economic reforms in Tunisia, it is necessary to shorten drastically the extremely long implementation cycle of reform laws from Ministries to Cabinet and Parliament and then back to the Ministries and Implementation Agencies. While the reforms of the Investment Code have started already in 2009 (before the Revolution), up to now only drafts are ready at Ministerial Level, but no decision was made in Cabinet and no parliamentary debate has taken place about an approved draft. Old laws, regulations and procedures prevail.
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26.03.2016
Internationale Konferenz über neue Industrialisierungsstrategien und inklusives Wachstum im Februar 2016 in Hammamet, Tunesien – Die Universität Bremen und die Hochschule Bremen setzen ihre Kooperation mit der Spitzenuniversität ENIT in Tunis fort

Acht Wissenschaftler der Universität Bremen und der Hochschule Bremen haben an einer vom tunesischen Kooperationspartner, der Spitzenuniversität ENIT, ausgerichteten Konferenz in Hammamet Vorträge gehalten. Die Konferenz hatte das Thema „Reindustrialisierung in Tunesien – Der Weg hin zu fairer und nachhaltiger Entwicklung und zu weiterer Demokratisierung“ und wurde von den deutschen und tunesischen Partnern gemeinsam geplant. Diskutiert wurden neue Industrialisierungskonzepte, die es Tunesien ermöglichen sollen, einerseits die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit seiner Industrien zu steigern und andererseits die Beschäftigung zu erhöhen. Die Arbeitslosigkeit, insbesondere auch von ausgebildeten Akademikern, ist in Tunesien sehr hoch (und sind faktisch weit höher als in den offiziellen Statistiken ausgewiesen). Effektivere Wachstums- und Beschäftigungspolitiken wurden diskutiert; diese sollen dazu beitragen, dass gleichzeitig ökonomische und soziale Ziele erreicht werden können. Zudem soll dadurch die weitere Demokratisierung in Tunesien abgesichert und verstärkt werden.


Die internationale Konferenz in Hammamet, Tunesien wurde von der tunesischen Wissenschaftsvereinigung TAASTI und vom DAAD gefördert


Zur bremischen Delegation gehörten die drei Wirtschaftsprofessoren der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven (Professor Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass von der Hochschule Bremen, Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg, und Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, FB 7, Universität Bremen). Die drei Professoren berichteten über neue Industrialisierungs- und Beschäftigungskonzepte für Tunesien sowie über Grundfragen der Förderung von Wissenschaft, Technologie und Innovation in nationalen Innovationssystemen und in industriellen Unternehmen. Das An-Institut BIBA war durch zwei Wissenschaftler vertreten (Dr. Marco Lewandowski, in Vertretung von Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus-Dieter Thoben, und Herr Zied Ghrairi, ein gebürtiger Tunesier). Die beiden Experten berichteten über Projekte des BIBA und über die Bedeutung von Industrie 4.0 für die zukünftige Kooperation der deutschen Industrie mit Tunesien. Der Leiter von UniTransfer/BRIDGE/Technologiepark Bremen, Herr Dr. Martin Heinlein, berichtete über die Erfahrungen in Bremen, einen Technologiepark im Umfeld und in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Bremen auf- und auszubauen. Dr.-Ing. Jens Hoheisel, Ko-Managing Direktor der Innowi GmbH, Bremen, erläuterte am bremischen Beispiel, wie Patente der bremischen Hochschulen möglichst effektiv kommerzialisiert werden können. Dr. Yildiray Ogurol, Geschäftsführer des ZMML (Zentrum für Multimedia in der Lehre) berichtete über die neue Rolle von Online-Kursen (MOOCs) für die Lehre in Deutschland und in Tunesien und für die Weiterbildung von Managern industrieller Unternehmen.


Podiumsdiskussion in Hammamet mit Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass und tunesischen Konferenzteilnehmern über die Bedeutung von Wissenschaft, Technologie und Innovation für die Reindustrialisierung in Tunesien


Auf tunesischer Seite waren an der Konferenz neben Professoren der ENIT und mehrerer tunesischer Universitäten Unternehmer, Vertreter von Ministerien, Mitarbeiter von Verbänden und Leiter von NGOs vertreten.
Teilgenommen haben auch Studierende und Dozenten des Studiengangs „Engineering and Technology Policy“ (ETP); an der Einrichtung dieses Studienganges an der ENIT in Tunis war die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven beratend beteiligt. Auch der tunesische Arbeitgeberverband UTICA, einer der vier Friedensnobelpreisträger des Jahres 2015,  war an der Konferenz mit Referenten beteiligt. Alle bei der Konferenz abgehandelten Themen stehen jetzt in Tunesien im Zentrum der Reformdiskussion, denn seit der Revolution des Jahres 2011 sind wohl politische Reformen erfolgt, doch die so dringlichen Wirtschafts- und Sozialreformen sind bisher unterblieben. Insbesondere gilt es in Tunesien, den De-Industrialisierungsprozess besser zu managen und durch pro-aktive Re-Industrialisierungsstrategien Beschäftigung zu schaffen, was angesichts der hohen Raten der Arbeitslosigkeit in Tunesien besonders wichtig ist. Ein Themenschwerpunkt bei der Konferenz war die Wissenschafts-, Technologie- und Innovationspolitik, denn die Reform des Nationalen Innovationssystems ist in Tunesien eine Voraussetzung dafür, dass die Industrie modernisiert werden kann. Zudem benötigen die tunesischen Unternehmen dringend qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte und Universitätsabsolventen, die es Tunesien ermöglichen sollen, seine Industrien effizienter in globale Wertschöpfungsketten zu integrieren. Die tunesischen Unternehmen brauchen auch Unterstützung bei F&E-Projekten, denn bislang gibt die öffentliche Forschung des Landes nur wenig Impulse für die Weiterentwicklung der industriellen Produktion (vgl. zum Programm der Konferenz die PDF ReindusConf-Booklet und zu den Abstracts der bremischen Delegation die PDF Wohlmuth Abstracts).

Im Anschluss an die  Konferenz war Professor Wohlmuth Gast beim Ersten Deutschen Forschungstag, der in Tunis vom DAAD ausgerichtet wurde. Etwa 100 tunesische Wissenschaftler wurden darüber informiert, wie bilaterale und multinationale Hochschulkooperationen initiiert, entwickelt und gemanagt werden können. An Beispielen wurde deutlich gemacht, wie tunesische, deutsche und drittstaatliche Universitäten aus Kooperationen möglichst große Vorteile ziehen können.


Professor Wohlmuth diskutierte in Tunis mit der Direktorin des DAAD und Kollegen aus Sousse und Kairo

Die tunesischen Teilnehmer am ersten Deutschen Forschungstag in Tunis waren Professoren und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter von tunesischen Universitäten und Forschungsinstituten


Professor Wohlmuth hatte in Tunis auch Treffen mit wichtigen Wirtschaftsberatern der tunesischen Regierung, mit Wirtschaftsprofessoren, mit Ministeriumsvertretern und mit Leitern von UN-Organisationen. Bei einem Expertentreffen im „Tunisian Institute for Competitiveness and Quantitative Studies/ITCEQ“ wurde über das Thema der „Wachstumsbarrieren in Tunesien“ diskutiert. Die Lage in Tunesien ist komplex und bedrohlich, weil bisher – fünf Jahre nach der Revolution vom 14. Januar 2011 -  Wirtschaftsreformen kaum durchgesetzt werden konnten. Eine fragile Regierungskoalition und schwache Institutionen verhindern Reformen und einen Wirtschaftsaufschwung. Umso wichtiger sind direkte Kontakte und Arbeitsprogramme zwischen tunesischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern. Die Kooperation von Bremen und Tunis im Rahmen der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven soll daher weiterentwickelt werden. So ist eine weitere Konferenz in Tunis über die Bedeutung der Innovationspolitik für die industrielle Entwicklung in Tunesien, Libyen und Algerien geplant. Tunesische Ökonomen werden auch am Band 20 des African Development Perspectives Yearbook zum Thema „Forschung, Technologie und Innnovation und inklusives Wachstum in Afrika“ mitarbeiten. Auch weitere Forschungsarbeiten im Zusammenhang mit der Erarbeitung einer „Nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie“ für Tunesien sind vorgesehen. Das BIBA und das ZMML beabsichtigen, im Rahmen von Erasmus Plus und anderen Förderprogrammen mit Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen der ENIT zu kooperieren.

Es ist perspektivisch für die bremischen Universitäten sehr sinnvoll, die bereits existierenden Kooperationen zwischen Universitäten in Bremen und Tunesien zukünftig besser zu koordinieren. Es gibt bereits zahlreiche Kooperationen zwischen bremischen und tunesischen universitären Projektgruppen; ein Erfahrungsaustausch unter den  Projektleitern könnte sicherlich allen Projekten nützen. Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird sich bemühen, einen Rahmen für die Kooperation vorzuschlagen.


Die meisten Präsentationen von der Konferenz in Hammamet und die Präsentation für den Deutschen Forschungstag in Tunis sind als PDFs in diesem Bericht verfügbar:

Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth in Hammamet über Re-Industrialisierungsstrategien: PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2
Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth in Hammamet über STI-Politik-Foren als Instrument für Tunesien: PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum Tunisia
Präsentation Karl Wohlmuth über multilaterale universitäre Kooperationen, Deutscher Forschungstag in Tunis: PDF Wohlmuth- German Research Day
Präsentation Marco Lewandowski: PDF Tunesien BIBA
Präsentation Marrtin Heinlein: PDF Präsentation Technologiepark
Präsentation Ghriari: PDF Tunisia BIBA
Präsentation: Jens Hoheisel: PDF InnoWI Tunisia
Präsentation Yildiray Ogurol: PDF mooc-presentation

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20.10.2015
Herausforderungen für die Innovationspolitik in Bremen – 1985 bis 2015

Neue Studien zur Innovationspolitik in Bremen

Vor dreißig Jahren hat das IWIM (Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management) an der Universität Bremen die Studie „Bremen als Standort für Hochtechnologie“ veröffentlicht. In mehreren Beiträgen wurden Wege aufgezeigt, wie Bremen nach dem Zusammenbruch der AG Weser durch eine kohärente Innovations- und Technologiepolitik den Strukturwandel beschleunigen und hochwertige Arbeitsplätze schaffen kann. Profile von Unternehmen im bremischen Hochtechnologiebereich zeigten auf, dass das Potential in Bremen durchaus vorhanden ist. Insbesondere wurde auch deutlich gemacht, dass Bremen von den Konzepten in anderen Ländern, in anderen Regionen und auch in den anderen Stadtstaaten (Berlin und Hamburg) lernen kann. Die Studie wurde seinerzeit vom Senat der Freien Hansestadt Bremen unterstützt. In einem Grußwort (PDF) haben Klaus Wedemeier, Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats, Prof. Dr. Timm, Rektor der Universität Bremen, und Friedo Berninghausen, Präses der Handelskammer Bremen, auf die Notwendigkeit einer kooperativen Innovations- und Technologiepolitik für Bremen hingewiesen.

Dreißig Jahre später steht in Bremen wieder die Innovations- und Technologiepolitik im Fokus der wirtschaftspolitischen Diskussionen. Dies hat damit zu tun, dass die Arbeitslosigkeit in Bremen im Bundesvergleich hoch ist und dass auch die Armutsraten im überregionalen Vergleich auffallend hoch sind. Trotz der beträchtlichen Finanzhilfen von Bund und Ländern seit Jahrzehnten konnte das fiskalische Defizit nicht reduziert werden, so dass die Schulden des Landes weiter stark ansteigen. Andererseits sind trotz einer aktiven Forschungslandschaft in Bremen die Beiträge innovativer Unternehmen zur Wertschöpfung eher bescheiden geblieben. In diesem Kontext hat die Studie des HWWI/ITD ( vgl. die PDF und den Download: http://www.hwwi.org/uploads/tx_wilpubdb/HWWI-Policy_Paper_88_Innovationspapier.pdf ) Bedeutung, da eine dezidierte Neuorientierung der Innovationspolitik in Bremen gefordert wird. An der Studie waren Ökonomen von allen bremischen Hochschulen/Universitäten beteiligt. Vom IWIM wirkte Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth an dem Vorhaben mit und verfasste den Beitrag „Weiter so wie bisher, oder einen Neuanfang wagen“. Auch ehemalige Mitarbeiter des IWIM (so Prof. Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass als Autor und Herausgeber, und Prof. Dr. Achim Gutowski als Autor) waren an dem  Projekt maßgeblich beteiligt. Die Studie wurde von der Presse positiv aufgenommen (vgl.: http://www.weser-kurier.de/startseite_artikel,-Wie-Bremer-Wirtschaft-und-Politik-innovativer-werden-sollen-_arid,1108732.html ), und im Rahmen einer gut besuchten Podiumsdiskussion mit bremischen Spitzenpolitikern (vgl. Einladung Podium und Thesenpapier) wurden die wichtigsten Thesen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Die Politik zeigte großes Interesse an den Thesen und an der Studie insgesamt, doch bleibt abzuwarten, wie nachhaltig das Interesse ist. Betont wurde, dass eine kooperative Innovations- und Technologiepolitik dringend erarbeitet werden muss. Ein Zukunftsrat für Bremen (Wirtschaft, Politik, Wissenschaft) wurde vorgeschlagen.




Ein „Bremen-Plan für Innovation und Wirtschaftsentwicklung“ ist notwendig

Neben der HWWI/ITD-Studie sind vor kurzem weitere Studien von Bedeutung für die Freie Hansestadt Bremen vorgelegt worden: die RWI-Studie zum bremischen Innovationssystem (vgl. RWI-Studie und Präsentation der RWI-Studie), eine Studie zur Metropolregion Bremen-Oldenburg (vgl. zum Download die HWWI-Studie: http://opus.kobv.de/zlb/volltexte/2014/23331/pdf/OLB_HWWI_Wachstumspotenziale_der_Region_WeserEms_und_Bremen_2030.pdf ), und Studien zu den Perspektiven von Deutschland mit Implikationen für Bremen (so die PwC-Studie über Arbeitsplätze der Zukunft in Deutschland, die Prognos-Studie „Deutschland Report 2020/2030/2040/Bericht zur Zukunft der Nation“, mit dem Download: http://www.prognos.com/fileadmin/pdf/Reports/Deutschlandreport/Deutschland_Report_2040/Flyer_D-Report_2040_web.pdf und die Studie „Prognos Zukunftsatlas“ mit dem Download: http://www.prognos.com/fileadmin/pdf/Atlanten/ZKA_2013_Regionen/Zukunftsatlas_2013_Auf_einen_Blick.pdf ). All diese Berichte haben Relevanz für die gegenwärtige Diskussion, die in Bremen geführt wird. Bei dieser Diskussion kommt es nach Ansicht von Prof. Karl Wohlmuth auch darauf an, dass die vielen Innovationsprogramme (vgl. die Darstellung der zwölf Programme unten) für Bremen vereinheitlicht, aufeinander bezogen, und dynamisch weiterentwickelt werden. Eine stärkere Vernetzung zwischen den Akteuren, eine tiefere Analyse und Umsetzung der Kernprogrammpunkte, und die Realisierung einer größeren Unabhängigkeit der Einzelprogramme in Konzeption und Entwicklung von der jeweiligen Finanzierungsquelle (EU, Bund, DFG, etc., Wirtschaft, Landesmittel, etc.) gilt es anzustreben. Dies kann durch einen von Professor Karl Wohlmuth vorgeschlagenen Bremen-Plan für Innovation und Wirtschaftsentwicklung erreicht werden. Dieser Bremen-Plan umfasst 10 Punkte (und wird als Skizze für die Diskussion demnächst veröffentlicht). Auf alle wichtigen neuen Berichte und auf die zwölf Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramme des Landes wird Bezug genommen.

Die zwölf bremischen Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramme (Quelle: Clusterstrategie 2020, Freie Hansestadt Bremen)



Nachrichtlich: Die Innovationsstudie von 1985 und das Grußwort der bremischen „Troika“




Grußwort

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Technological Capabilities, Digital Production, and African Industrialisation

Technological Capabilities, Digital Production, and African Industrialisation: A New United Nations Industrial Development Study

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has just finalized a Background Study for a new UNIDO Project on Africa's Industrial Futures in the Digital Age. The Background Study is on the accumulation of technological capabilities (see for details the link to the Publications by Professor Karl Wohlmuth: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm ). The Economics Professor from Bremen analyses the possibilities to accumulate technological capabilities through digital media in African countries and especially so within African enterprises. The socio-economic context of the particular country and the particular firm plays a great role. The study first of all presents evidence about the technological heterogeneity in Africa, by looking at the most influential technological and ICT capability indicators. The accumulation of technological competences is imperative in order to include Africa into global digital manufacturing value chains. It can be supported also in Africa by specific policy measures, and by targeting structural and innovation policies accordingly. However, it is necessary to consider in the policy process the impact of the global techno-economic changes on the industrial structures, bottlenecks and opportunities in Africa. Decisive are the initial conditions in African formal and informal sector enterprises with regard of ICT competence and technological capabilities.

In order to accumulate technological capabilities within African enterprises and African industry systems, it is necessary to adapt the national and regional innovation systems accordingly. It is argued in the Background Study that it is possible to adapt the pillars of the national and regional innovation systems in African countries in such a way that economic incentives for the accumulation of technological capabilities can become stronger. In various case studies the Economics Professor shows that this is also possible in less developed African countries. An Agenda for Strengthening Technological Capabilities is presented in the Background Study.

Digital entrepreneurship, digital skills, and digital manufacturing play an increasing role in Africa, and networking within and between African countries and with the global ICT community facilitates the productive use of these new tools for manufacturing. New industrial development paths, along "remanufacturing", "green manufacturing" and informal sector manufacturing, benefit from processes of digitalisation and these offer new opportunities for African producers, also in terms of employment. New training and further education modules play a role in Africa and are already initiated by enterprises and training institutions. New developments in the innovation process, such as "open innovation", and new production modules, like 3D printing, give the manufacturing process in Africa already a new dimension.

A shorter version of this Background Study will be published in a United Nations book on Africa's Industrial Futures. In this book international experts present their findings on the perspectives of industrial production in Africa in the digital age. Chapters deal also with digitalisation trends and impacts on Africa, manufacturing trends and opportunities in Africa, global structural changes as affecting industrial production in Africa, energy scarcity and climate change as factors impacting on Africa's manufacturing production, and developments with regard of new competitive sectors in Africa. The Expert Group is finalising the report quite soon and will also present policy recommendations to national governments in Africa, UN bodies, donor agencies, and enterprises. Professor Wohlmuth is involved in the expert group as a Consultant and as a Lead Author. Professor Wohlmuth has in earlier work for UNIDO presented studies on the technological strengthening of agro-industrial sectors in Africa (see the Link: http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=1001692 ).

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Ein neues Forschungsprojekt (2015 - 2017) startet in Bremen unter der Leitung von Professor Reuben A. Alabi zum Thema:
"Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains"

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM's Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow, leitet von Januar 2015 bis Dezember 2017 das Forschungsprojekt "Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains". Der nigerianische Professor wird das international finanzierte Projekt an der Exzellenzuniversität Bremen durchführen. Erfahrungen mit den deutschen Wertschöpfungsketten im Bereich der Abfallwirtschaft sollen für die Umwelt- und Entwicklungspolitik in Nigeria nutzbar gemacht werden. Eine Kooperation mit deutschen und nigerianischen Unternehmen und zwischen deutschen und nigerianischen Universitäten ist im Projekt vorgesehen. Der nigerianische Professor wird in Bremen und in Nigeria regelmäßig über den Fortgang des Projektes in Seminaren und in Workshops berichten. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth ist als Konsulent und Senior Adviser im Projekt tätig. Die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen unterstützt das Forschungsvorhaben und wird in einer Ausgabe des "Jahrbuchs Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven" über die Forschungsergebnisse und deren Umsetzung in Nigeria berichten.

 

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A New Three Year (2015 - 2017) Research Project on Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria was launched in Bremen by Professor Reuben A. Alabi

A New Three Year (2015 - 2017) Research Project on Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria was launched in Bremen by Professor Reuben A. Alabi

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, an Associate Professor at the Department of Agricultural Economics of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria and a former Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at IWIM, is the director of a new research project for the coming years 2015-2017 on the theme "Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains". The Nigerian Professor has brought this internationally financed research project to the Excellence University of Bremen. Experiences with German value chains in waste management will be analysed and used for evidence-based reforms in Nigeria. A cooperation with German and Nigerian enterprises in the field of waste management is envisaged and also a cooperation between German and Nigerian universities and research institutes being active in the field. The Nigerian professor will also organize workshops in Bremen and in Nigeria to report on the research results and on the policy recommendations. Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior adviser in this project. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives supports the researches. It is envisaged to publish volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on the theme of "Energy and Sustainable Development in Africa" using also material from the research project.

 

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Fact Finding Mission to Tunis in November 2014 by Economists from Bremen

Fact Finding Mission (FFM) by Economists from Bremen to Tunis: Cooperation with ENIT University in Tunis and with leading STI Institutions in Tunisia Envisaged

A Fact Finding Mission (FFM) to Tunisia took place in November 2014 at the invitation of Professor Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Society for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation. Participants were three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also a young scientist from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) participated as a member of the team; he was responsible for drafting the detailed Minutes.

The Fact Finding Mission (FFM) gave the opportunity to study Tunisia’s National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions, and to meet ENIT university staff being responsible for new study and research programmes. There was also time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team, especially on the new study programme Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP). It was agreed to support the programme when it starts in September 2015 in Tunis, by Summer Courses, Scientific Conferences, and by specifically developed lecture modules on innovation policies. This first phase of the cooperation between Bremen and Tunis was financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, was the main applicant. Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a Seminar in Bremen on Bremen’s Regional Innovation System and a Science, Technology, Industry and Innovation (STII) Policy Research Conference in Tunis.

 

 

The Delegations from Bremen and Tunis during their Meetings

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia’s success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

Of great interest and importance for the two delegations was the meeting with ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa) staff in the African Development Bank Headquarters Building in Tunis. Representatives from ADEA, the University of Bremen, the University of Applied Sciences Bremen and from ENIT University discussed about ICT education and innovation policies in Africa, about the African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project, and about a cooperation between these institutions towards establishing the ETP programme at ENIT from September 2015 onwards (see the report by ADEA about the meeting: http://adeanet.org/portalv2/en/news/universities-bremen-and-tunis-el-manar-pay-visit-adea#.VKhq8clhLJk ). Various reports on the FFM to Tunis were published in Bremen in newspapers (see PDF) and also in online journals like The European (Web Access: http://www.theeuropean.de/hans-heinrich-bass/9297-tunesien-nach-den-praesidentschaftswahlen-hoffnung ). The two Universities in Bremen reported about the event in press releases (see for the Hochschule Bremen:  http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2014/detail/index_49269.html and for the University of Bremen: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/unterstuetzung-bremer-oekonomen-in-tunis-willkommen.html?cHash=755d38f765e079e8488fd03561fdf373 ). See also the Photo Gallery for the FFM to Tunis (Photo Gallery). The Minutes of the FFM to Tunis are now available and can be sent upon request to interested experts intending to cooperate with universities in Tunisia.

 

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