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12.02.2018
Advising on Global and African Studies: Reviews, Evaluations and Academic Activities

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has given advice to the Promotions Committee of the Federal University Of Technology in Akura, Nigeria. The Promotions Committee is responsible for the appointment of Professors and Associate Professors. Professor Wohlmuth was asked to evaluate candidates on the basis of their publications and overall qualifications for the position in question. It is a sophisticated multi-stages system of evaluation for the promotion to the rank of a Professor and an Associate Professor. Karl Wohlmuth was invited for this function by the Vice-President of the University and by the Head (Secretary) of the Promotions Committee. The Federal University of Technology is a leading University in Nigeria.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the Promotions Committees of the University of Khartoum (Sudan) and of the University of Juba (South Sudan) concerning appointments to Full Professorship. The University of Khartoum is on the way of reorganizing and strengthening its academic profile to regain the leading position which it had after independence among African universities. The University of Juba, as well as other universities in South Sudan, are still suffering because of the civil war in the country and the serious governance problems.

Professor Wohlmuth was also active as a reviewer of manuscripts, book proposals and articles for peer-reviewed journals. The Canadian Journal of  Development Studies asked him to review manuscripts. This journal is now a leading journal on development studies in North America. The UNU-WIDER Institute in Helsinki asked Professor Wohlmuth to review a contribution for an international journal. UNU-WIDER is the globally leading institute for development research. Professor Wohlmuth was also active for the Journal Of International Development, for the journal Comparative Economic Studies,  and for various African journals. Again, Professor Wohlmuth was asked to review proposals for book publications for the Economics Book Editions programme of Routledge Publishers.

Professor Wohlmuth was invited to advise a leading German multinational on issues of  Customer Assessment to Optimize Business Models in Africa. As there are increasing business relations with Africa, the role of different groups of customers (by size, sector, and country) is becoming more and more relevant. It is therefore important to optimize the business models in Africa accordingly. A preparatory group of the German multinational company is involved in writing the first draft of the assessment.

Professor Wohlmuth has given advice and was peer-reviewing a Strategy Document on Revitalizing Sudan which was written by Dr. Murtada Mustafa. The Strategy Document is emphasizing five core pillars (Education, Entrepreneurship, Agriculture, Industry, and Management/Civil Service), which are considered as the basis of a new development strategy for Sudan.  Dr. Murtada Mustafa was the first permanent Undersecretary of Labour in the government of Sudan. He has also had various leading functions in the International Labour Office (in Geneva, Harare, Cairo, and Khartoum). The Strategy Document will also be published in the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Papers, and it will be circulated to policymakers inside and outside of Sudan. It will be published in English and in Arabic languages.

Professor Wohlmuth is also supporting and advising two Guest Researchers at the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Bremen: The agricultural economist Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Department Of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria is in Bremen for the period 2015-2018, and the international economist Professor Chunji Yun from the Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan is in Bremen for the period September 2017 to August 2018. For both researchers this is a further stay for research programmes, in cooperation with Professor Wohlmuth, at the University of Bremen and at IWIM. Both researchers have published in the various IWIM Publications Series. Further publications are expected from this research period.

Professor Alabi is doing researches on waste management and related value chains in Nigeria (comparing such value chains with the ones in Germany) and on aspects of the agricultural transformation in Nigeria. He is also these months working as a research fellow at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington D. C. in their African Department to do research and to give advice on the E-wallet fertilizer subsidy scheme which was introduced in Nigeria by Akinwumi Akesina, at that time the Nigerian agriculture minister who is now the President of the African Development Bank in Abidjan. It is the purpose of the assignment to the IMF to look at the possibilities of a wider use of the Nigerian E-wallet fertilizer subsidy scheme in other African countries. Professor Alabi and Professor Wohlmuth cooperate in Bremen on editions of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook concerning aspects of Nigeria’s economic and agricultural transformation. Most recently, Unit 2 of Volume 20  (a Unit is a collection of essays for a specific theme, introduced by the editors of the Unit) was finalized on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Agricultural Transformation in Nigeria”. A strategy was outlined on the basis of the  Unit 2 by Professors Alabi and Wohlmuth.

The researches by Professor Chunji Yun centre on the European integration process. He is interested in the fact that the European Union (EU) has 28 (later after Brexit 27) employment regimes and labour policies, so that cross-border investments by firms through global and regional value chains have implications for the national employment regimes and the still national labour markets. He investigates the implications of cross-border investments on nationally organized labour markets for two sectors (automobiles and electronics). He will analyse the different sectoral structures of the value chains which are demanding different types of labour by function at different levels of skills and at different places; these cross-border investments and value chains are then leading to quite different labour market outcomes. He concentrates in his research work on the cross-border investments of German companies in the Visegrad countries to study the repercussions of the changing value chains on the national labour markets and the national labour policies in Germany and in the four Visegrad countries. Because of the fact that Bremen is a centre of production networks, such as for automobiles and automotive parts, there is also the possibility for Professor Yun to visit production sites in Bremen. Professor Wohlmuth and Professor Chun have discussed the first research report in December 2017; the second research report is due in February 2018 for a further intensive discussion and review.

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12.02.2018
Sudan: From an oil-based economy to an agriculture-based and science-based economy?

Prominent Sudanese scientists from universities and research institutions in Sudan and at UNESCO Cairo and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen are launching a new strategy for a transition of Sudan from an oil-based development path towards an agriculture-based and science-based development model. This is a part (Unit 2) of the forthcoming Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. General Issues and Country Cases”. Professor Dr. Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour and Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed an Introductory Essay to the theme under the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization - An Introduction”. The Unit 2 in Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization”  has four additional essays. Professor Samia Satti Nour presents an analysis of the national innovation system (NIS) of Sudan, by focusing on three subsystems, the education institutions subsystem, the science & technology institutions subsystem, and the ICT institutions subsystem; the weaknesses of the NIS are highlighted and an agenda for action is proposed. She also presents in a second essay an analysis about innovative industrial firms in Sudan, focussing on two internationally active Sudanese conglomerates in the food industry, on two large-sized companies (belonging to the chemical and food industries) and on two medium-sized companies (belonging to the metal and textile industries). The purpose is to assess how innovative these companies really are and how they could improve their innovation performance. It is also measured by a new analytical approach how far away these companies are from the innovation frontier, and it is analysed what the government and the private sector can do to stimulate STI in the Sudanese companies.

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), and Nazar Mohamed Hassan, from the UNESCO Cairo Office, provide an essay on the impact of agricultural research on the agriculture yields in Sudan. ENDRI has recently launched the Environment and Natural Resources International Journal (ENRIJ), with volume 1 and number 1 published in 2016 (link: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/journals/enrij/); ENDRI is a key research institution in Sudan. This essay is analysing the factors which are impeding yield increases in Sudan, but this essay is also using the example of the national crops campaigns in Egypt (such as for rice production increases) as a model of large-scale testing of agricultural research results in the field.

Finally, the Unit 2 on Sudan in Volume 20 presents an analysis by Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali from the University of Kassala and the Sudan International University (SIU) about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors in Sudan to local companies. Although the oil-based growth in Sudan has attracted mainly investment for the oil sector, foreign investment was also incoming to supply the growing Sudanese consumption market and to invest in agriculture and services sectors of Sudan. The essay on knowledge spillovers from foreign direct investors to domestic firms in Sudan gives also an agenda of how to stimulate technology transfers from foreign firms to domestic firms.

In the Introductory Essay by Professor Samia Satti Nour and by Professor Karl Wohlmuth also an Agenda for Reforms aimed at Economic Revitalization through STI Development is presented. The Strategy proposed has short-term to medium-term to long-term implications for reforming institutions and policies. Professor Samia Satti Nour is a prominent researcher on STI development. She recently has obtained a full professorship at Khartoum University (see the PDFs of the Inaugural Lecture/ICT Development in Sudan and the Inaugural Lecture/Academic Profile of and Awards to Professor Samia Satti Nour, as well as the PDF on the Abstract in English and in Arabic of her Springer Book ICT in Sudan). Professor Wohlmuth was invited to attend the inaugural meeting at the University of Khartoum. Professor Samia Satti Nour is adviser to the African Development Perspectives Yearbook programme for Volume 20 and Co-editor of Volume 20. Recently she has presented a Policy Note on the multiple Digital Divides in Africa for The Nordic Africa Institute (see the PDF: NAI Policy Note).

Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar is also Co-editor of the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is Senior Science and Technology Specialist for the Arab States in UNESCO’s Cairo Office since 2009. He has massively contributed to the Introductory Unit 1 for Volume 20 (together with Professor Karl Wohlmuth), and he has participated as a speaker at the Launch Event for volumes 18 and 19 of the Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016 at the invitation of UNECA. In the Unit 2 on Sudan for Volume 20 he contributed with an essay on the role of agricultural research for increasing agricultural yields in Sudan, an essay which was written in cooperation with Migdam E. Abdelgani.  Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar has also established the Sudan Knowledge (SK) Platform  to make the intellectual capacities of the Sudanese researchers and other experts and policymakers known more widely and to allow for a broader use of these capacities for development. The SK Platform is a strong network of researchers, policy makers, educators, consultants and employers from all parts of the world to exchange knowledge and experience and to discuss current developments and challenges. This Directory of Capacities of the Sudanese can be used to help find, support and collaborate with experts from the SK network. The Sudan Knowledge Network aims also to bring together researchers and experts from the Diaspora (see the various links: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/name/nazar-hassan/, and: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/locality/Cairo/, and: http://www.sudanknowledge.org/network/country/Egypt/).

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), is known for his study (in cooperation with other Sudanese researchers) about “Potential Production and Application of Biofertilizers in Sudan”, published in the Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (9), pp. 926-934, 2010 (link: www.sustech.edu/staff_publications/20100822070957958.pdf). These ideas are relevant for an agricultural transformation strategy which is part of the economic revitalization programme for Sudan.

Dr. Mohamed Elhaj Mustafa Ali, as the author on the essay about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors to domestic firms in Sudan, is lecturer at the University of Kassala and at the Sudan International University (link: http://www.siu-sd.com/). He is expert on foreign direct investment in Sudan and has recently published a Policy Brief on the relevant issues of foreign investment in Sudan in Bremen at the SERG/IWIM platforms (see the PDF: Mustafa Ali -Policy Brief). He has also published a Policy Brief for the Economic Research Forum (ERF) in Cairo on “Measures to Protect Poor Sudanese Households from the Risks of Catastrophic Health Expenditures” (see the PDF: PB28-Mustafa Ali).

There are intentions to continue to cooperate in the future on the most important issues of STI development for Sudan. The Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Paper Series is still open for researchers from Sudan to publish on these most important issues (see the links to the series: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/, and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm).

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12.02.2018
A New Development Strategy for Sudan: “Sudan in the 21st Century - Seeking Pathways Forward”

The outline of a new development strategy for Sudan was prepared by Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa. Dr. Murtada was the first permanent Undersecretary for Labour in the Sudan, the Director of the African Regional Labour Administration Centre (ARLAC) for the English-speaking African countries in Harare, Zimbabwe, and then the Director of the International Labour Office in Egypt before retiring to academic and philanthropic endeavours in Khartoum. He was educated at Addis Ababa University, Harvard University, the University of Wisconsin, Northeastern University, and the International Institute for Labour Studies in Geneva. Dr. Murtada was an early collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) in Bremen. He has supported the research work on Sudan in Bremen tremendously. Now he pays again tribute to his country by presenting to key policymakers the contours of a new development strategy for Sudan which is based on decades of experience as a civil service official and member of the Government of Sudan and as an employee and head of offices of the  ILO with working times in Khartoum, Geneva, Harare, and Cairo. Dr. Murtada has published in IWIM publication series, such as in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, but also in the IWIM Book Series (see the link to the IWIM Homepage, Publications: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/index.html).

The frame and the basic ideas for a new development strategy for Sudan are summarised below in the words of Dr.  Murtada (taken from the Strategy Paper, which will be published as the number 43 in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, with the links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm and  http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/):

The earliest studies by the International Labour Office (ILO) in conjunction with the Sudanese Government (Ministry of Labour) and the University of Bremen (SERG) in 1976 up to today repeat almost the same recommendations to enhance and improve the Sudanese economy. The recommendations were, just to mention some key ones: Improve infrastructure; develop industry; link agriculture to manufacturing; increase vocational and technical training; reform taxes to encourage industry and exports; support small industries, the vulnerable people, and remote regions; institute rule of law; ensure contract enforcement and transparency to encourage foreign investment;  and provide for sustainable economic policies via effective institutions and a responsible macroeconomic policy formation. Whether from lack of political will, leadership, economic means, or external financial investment, the neglect of all these recommendations along with conflict, civil war and international sanctions has continued to disintegrate the development options in the Sudan. After decades of conflict and civil war, the government of Sudan now faces the burden of reconstructing the country, the society and its economy, of repatriating internally displaced persons (IDPs) and providing training and jobs for them in urban and rural areas, also to replace redundant cattle-herding livelihoods and to initiate agricultural projects for food security in depleted environments. While the discovery of oil brought revenue before the great country of the Sudan split into two republics, the oil money was not properly used to expand and to develop the economy. The agricultural sector, the industrial sector, the civil service, and the education sector deteriorated from the satisfactory state they were left in by the British at independence. Although the country since independence has presented a lot of plans and programmes, implementation was always weak or non-existent.

This strategy paper by Dr. Murtada outlines changes which are necessary to get the economy back on track in five major sectors stemming from and supporting institutional revisions: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry, and management. While the short-term and the long-term solutions are outlined, the Sudanese people themselves need to pull together, to stop competing for power and land, to produce and support fresh leaders, and to begin to consider the long-term conditions of the country for the good of its own people. The Strategy Paper is structured as follows: After the Introduction (section 1) the section 2 is on Building Capacity, Growth, and Employment through Education, with Recommendations for Education. The section 3 is on Combatting Unemployment, Promoting Growth through Entrepreneurship, with Recommendations for Entrepreneurship. Section. Section 4 is on Improving Growth and Employment through Agriculture, with Recommendations for Agriculture. The section 5 is on. Growth and Employment through Industry, with Recommendations for Industry. The section 6 is on Management, by Improving Civil Service, People, Goods, and Resources, with Recommendations for Management. Section 7  is on. Results of Past Efforts and Lessons Learned. The Section 8 is Towards a New Strategy. And the final section 9 is on Conclusions, followed by References on the history of policymaking in Sudan.             

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has given advice to the author during the process of finalizing the Strategy Paper and has peer-reviewed the paper. The research on Sudan and South Sudan is continuing at the University of Bremen (see the links to the websites: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-sudan.htm and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudanforschung.htm).

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15.08.2017
Starting Points for a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is co-author of a new study on employment creation in Tunisia. This is a reworked version of the study which was published in 2016 in German, Arabic and French languages. Main issue is how to develop a new employment strategy for Tunisia amidst dangers of increasing unemployment and spreading political instability. The authors provide a frame for employment policies consisting of three strategic elements. Element One considers the long overdue need for a pro-active policy towards small and medium enterprises in Tunisia. Element Two addresses the need to integrate Tunisian enterprises in a more effective way into global and regional value chains. Element Three focuses on the need to start a broad-based reindustrialization process in Tunisia and to manage in a better way the deindustrialization process in the field of old industries. Also the trade policy and implementation issues of the proposed strategy are discussed. There is a great interest of Tunisian policymakers in this strategic approach towards employment creation. Governmental and non-governmental institutions in Tunisia and various donor agencies are working now on solid foundations for a an operational employment strategy and policy for Tunisia. The Council of Economic Advisers of Tunisia has established a working group on these issues. Despite of the importance of the employment issue not too many studies were done so far on employment policies for Tunisia.

 
Photo: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016

The National Dialogue on Employment of March 2016 raised the issue of employment creation again and presented an Eleven-Point Plan, and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon emphasized during the meeting the necessity to keep the theme of job creation at the centre of policymaking to preserve Tunisia’s democratic gains (see the report by Mabrouka M’Barek: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016, Web Access: http://www.mei.edu/content/article/more-jobs-higher-wages-essential-tunisian-growth).


The four versions of the study by the three development economists:

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien


The Study:
Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl

Starting points for a national employment strategy for Tunisia / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Dep. for Middle East and North Africa, April 2017. - 17 Seiten = 250 KB, PDF-File. - (Study / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2017
ISBN 978-3-95861-753-7
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/13336.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
[Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth]. - [Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016]. - 16 Seiten = 340 KB, PDF-File. -
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017. - Arabic text and script
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13338.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016. - 16 Seiten = 125 KB, PDF-File. - (Étude / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13337.pdf

 

 

 

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - (Studie / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016
ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

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15.08.2017
Advising on African and Global Studies: Research Projects, International Guest Researchers, Global Conferences, Evaluations, Publications

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications (see some projects below):

Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on “Industrialization based on Agricultural Development”. Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an  ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.

Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth.  It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).

Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.

Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of “Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union.” This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.

Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new “Porter Competitiveness Index”, based on Porter’s Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new “Porter Competitiveness Index” with the long-established “Global Competitiveness Index” of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.

In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.

Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan”, is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on “STI Frameworks for Africa” is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on “Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia”. Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.

Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

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14.08.2017
Professor Reuben A. Alabi continues his Research Programme at the University of Bremen until 2020: Cooperation with Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Economic Developments in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Nigeria

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Full Professor of Agricultural  Economics since March 2017 at the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, will continue his researches in Bremen for three more years (2018 - 2020). He is already in Bremen since 2015, at the invitation of Professor Karl Wohlmuth who is also consultant and senior project adviser to these research projects. He will undertake in the coming years researches on various issues of development in Nigeria:

Research Project One: ‘Cassava Production, Processing, Fortification and Acceptability in Nigeria’, a publication for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is also one of the Volume Editors and Unit Co-Editor for the Unit on Nigeria in Volume 20. Volume 20 will appear for 2018, while Volume 21 will  be ready for 2019. Professor Alabi will also assist in the work for Volume 21.

Research Project Two: He will conduct researches on ‘Impact of State Government Public Expenditures on Yam Productivity and its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria’. In this context he will also organize a Policy Workshop in Nigeria. The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society, and academia about the policy implications of these researches. Focus is on the role of state level public finances in contrast to analyses of the federal level public expenditures.

Research Project Three: He will also conduct researches on ‘How to Address Youth Unemployment in Nigeria by Using Agricultural and Business Technologies’. Also this project will lead to a Policy Workshop in Nigeria. The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society and academia about these researches. As growth has not contributed to employment creation in Nigeria, this project will link directly employment policies for the youth and agricultural development policies to enable young entrepreneurs.

 

Recent researches by Professor Alabi in Bremen have led to important international publications (a full list of publications is contained in the Letter of Intentions submitted for the Research Programme 2018-2020):

International Publication One: AGRODEP

No. 0036 - Does an Inorganic Fertilizer Subsidy Promote the Use of Organic Fertilizers in Nigeria?

AGRODEP Author:
Alabi, Reuben Adeolu 
Abu, Godwin Anjeinu 
Authors:
Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Oshobugie Ojor Adams, Godwin Abu 
Publisher:
AGRODEP 

Abstract:
This study examines the crowding-out or -in effect of organic fertilizers as a result of the inorganic fertilizer subsidy program in Nigeria. The study made use of the Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS) dataset from 2010-2011, which contains 5,000 farmers. We estimate the probability and intensity of organic and inorganic fertilizer use conditioned on the amount of fertilizer subsidy accessed by the farmers using Probit and Tobit IV methodologies. The results reveal that organic fertilizer is being used as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer and that the farmers who are not able to access the fertilizer subsidy rely on organic fertilizer. Apart from revealing the crowding-out effect of the fertilizer subsidy on the use of organic fertilizers, our findings also bring to the fore the role that transportation and regional constraints play in stimulating inorganic fertilizer application among farmers outside the fertilizer subsidy scheme. We conclude with some recommendations on how to increase organic fertilizer use and promote integrated soil fertility management among farmers in Nigeria.

The full paper is available at:

http://www.agrodep.org/resource/no-0036-does-inorganic-fertilizer-subsidy-promote-use-organic-fertilizers-nigeria

International Publication Two: AFRICAN ECONOMIC RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (AERC), NAIROBI, KENYA

 

Title: THE PRO-POORNESS OF FERTILIZER SUBSIDY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA  Authors: ALABI, Reuben Adeolu  Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, e-mail: bayobimb@yahoo.com and
ADAMS, Oshobugie Ojor Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, e-mail: bugieadams@yahoo.com
FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO The AFRICAN ECONOMIC RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (AERC), NAIROBI, KENYA

Abstract:

We examined the pro-poorness of the newly introduced e-wallet fertilizer scheme in Nigeria. The study made use of the Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS)-Panel Datasets of 2010/2011 and 2012/2013 which contain 5000 farmers in each the panel and supplemented it with Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) data on fertilizer subsidy. We determined the pro-poorness of the scheme by estimating its benefit incidence and concentration index, and estimated the impact of the scheme on fertilizer use,  output and yield of the participating farmers using the propensity score matching (PSM) methodology. We found that the e-wallet scheme was able to register about 70% of the expected number of registered farmers, while the roll-out and redemption rates stood at 79% and 69% respectively. The proportion of farmers who used fertilizer in Nigeria declined from about 39% in the pre-wallet scheme to 38% during the e-wallet scheme. The percentage of farmers that used subsidized fertilizer also decreased from 13% in the pre-wallet era to 12%  during  the e-wallet scheme. We indicated that the concentration indices of fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet schemes were  0.0328  and 0.0168 respectively. Since they were positive, it means that their distributions are not pro-poor, but fertilizer subsidy with the e-wallet scheme is more pro-poor than the pre e-wallet scheme because it has a lower concentration index. While the largest-scale farmers shared 23% in the fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet schemes, the share of the smallest-scale farmers were 18% and 19% in the fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet scheme respectively.

This may explain the relative pro-poorness of e-wallet over the pre-e-wallet scheme. However, the e-wallet scheme was not pro-poor in absolute terms because the share of the largest farm size group of farmers was higher than the share of the smallest farm size group during the e-wallet scheme. The study showed further that the share of the rural area in the fertilizer subsidy was about 39% and 41% before and during the e-wallet scheme respectively. The study demonstrated  that the fertilizer subsidy distribution is not pro-poor in the rural area and in the South-South, North-West and North-Central regions of Nigeria. The study revealed further  that the participating farmers in the e-wallet fertilizer scheme used more fertilizer than non-participating farmers in the range of 278kg to 293kg per farmer. The output of the participating farmers was significantly higher by 827kg but there were not significant differences in their farm productivities. The study revealed that the small and the smallest farm holders who contributed about 70% of the total yield of all the farmers shared only 39% of the subsidized fertilizer during the e-wallet fertilizer scheme. This non-pro-poor distribution of subsidized fertilizer has been implicated for non-significant differences in the farm productivities of participating and non-participating farmers in the scheme. The study concluded that, though the e-wallet scheme is more innovative and transparent than the previous fertilizer subsidy scheme, some factors that limited the pro-poorness of the past fertilizer subsidy scheme are still inherent in the e-wallet scheme. In order to improve the impact of the scheme on food crop productivity and on food security, the study recommended how the pro-poorness of the e-wallet scheme can be addressed with special reference to the rural area,  the South-South, the North-West and the North-Central regions.
See the Final Report to AERC by the Authors: PDF AERC Contribution

Competing Successfully for International Research Awards
Professor Alabi holds various research awards and international scholarships: Research Grant from Bilateral Cooperation in Education and Research (Internationales Büro des BMBF, Bonn, Germany; Georg Forster Research Fellowship Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH Foundation), Bonn, Germany; Innovative Research Grant from African Growth & Development Policy Modelling Consortium (AGRODEP-IFPRI), Washington D. C., USA; Research Grant from the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya; Research Grant by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) Research Network, Quebec Canada; and Excellence in Publication Grant from African Growth & Development Policy Modelling Consortium (AGRODEP-IFPRI), Washington D. C., USA). He also has applied for funding for the projects in the new research period in Bremen (2018 – 2020). Professor Karl Wohlmuth is advising the research activities of Professor Alabi now since 2004. In this year the cooperation started between the universities in Ekpoma, Nigeria and in Bremen, Germany at the occasion of a Research Workshop on African Development.

Professor Alabi has published in most of the publication series of IWIM (Book Series, African Development Perspectives Yearbook Series, Blue Discussion Paper Series, and White Discussion Paper Series).

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14.08.2017
ECOSOC and Sustainable Development Goal 9: „Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation“

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is invited as a speaker to the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC in preparation of the 2017 Special Meeting to be held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. ECOSOC is intensively working now on the global implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As SDG 9 has great relevance for poverty eradication, the complex issues are discussed in various Global Conferences. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is one of the speakers at the Global Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC on “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization” will highlight the following issues (see the link: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting):

WHAT? The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC will address the theme “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization”, putting the spotlight on the relevance of Sustainable Development Goal 9 (SDG-9) and its inter-linkages with other Goals and targets. Two preparatory events – in Dakar, Senegal (26 March) and in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe (24-26 April) – were organised in the lead-up to the Special Meeting.

WHEN? The 2017 Special Meeting will be held on 31 May 2017, in the ECOSOC Chamber at UN Headquarters, New York.

WHY? Resilient infrastructure and sustainable industrialization are key enablers of poverty eradication and can promote inclusion, connectivity and equality within societies. However, these sectors can be complex and expensive to develop, especially in countries in Africa and countries in special situations. The Special Meeting will aim to bring the challenges involved to the attention of national, regional and international actors, and to forge solutions to bridge the gaps in infrastructure, industrialization and innovation across countries.

WHO? The 2017 Special Meeting will bring together high-level representatives of Member States, representatives of the United Nations system, international organizations, civil society and other non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector. The overall initiative is supported by a range of UN entities including FAO, OHRLLS (UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States), OSAA (Office of the Special Adviser on Africa), UNCTAD, UNDP, UNECA, UNHABITAT, UNIDO and WIPO, and engaging other organizations such as the African Development Bank, the African Union, NEPAD and representatives from academia, civil society and the private sector.

Invitation: Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited by His Excellency, Mr. Frederick Musiwa Makamure Shava, President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to speak at the „Global Expert Meeting on Agriculture and Agro-industries Development towards Sustainable and Resilient Food Systems“ in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe about “Strategies towards Industrialization based on Agricultural Development - Lessons learned from the 3ADI model and moving beyond 3ADI”. The Conference is held on 24-26 April 2017, arranged by ECOSOC, FAO, UNIDO, and other UN organizations.

Further Information:

See the Programme of the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC: PDF ECOSOC-Draft Programme

See the Press Release of IWIM at the occasion of this Event: PDF Press Release of IWIM on ECOSOC

See the Link to the ECOSOC working programme on SDG 9 with meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City (United Nations Headquarters): https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

See the Link to the Special Meeting of ECOSOC on “Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization” at: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

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14.08.2017
Standortwahl bei Markteintritten von kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen in Afrika: Yves Bagna entwickelt einen „Porter Competitiveness Index“

Der Ingenieur und Ökonom Diplom-Ingenieur und MBA Yves Bagna aus Kamerun hat einen „Porter Competitiveness Index“ zur Bewertung der wirtschaftlichen Attraktivität afrikanischer Länder erarbeitet. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit dem „Global Competitiveness Index“ des World Economic Forum (WEF) abgeglichen. An diesem Projekt hat Professor Karl Wohlmuth als Berater mitgewirkt. Die Studie ist jetzt im Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik e. V. Berlin (IWVWW) als Buch erschienen. Im nächsten Heft der Institutszeitschrift „Berichte“ (Nummer 1, 2017) wird eine prägnante Kurzfassung der Studie unter dem Titel „Zielmärkte in Afrika, Eine Untersuchung der wirtschaftlich attraktiven Länder in Afrika“ erscheinen. Yves Bagna hat seinen Ansatz dem Team von Professor Michael Porter an der Harvard Business School, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness (ISC), vorgestellt (Link: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/Pages/default.aspx).


Vgl. zu den Kurzfassungen und bibliographischen in Deutsch, Französisch und Englisch die folgenden Einträge:

 

Zukunftsmarkt Afrika: Welche Länder sind für eine Geschäftsanbahnung besonders interessant?

Yves Bagna legt eine neue Studie zu afrikanischen Zukunftsmärkten vor und entwickelt einen „Porter Competitiveness Index“. In diesem faktenreichen Buch werden wichtige theoretische Ansätze genutzt, um Aussagen über die Attraktivität afrikanischer Länder für kleine und mittelständische deutsche und andere europäische Unternehmen zu treffen. Unternehmen, die in Afrika investieren wollen bzw. einen Kooperationspartner vor Ort suchen, können den Analyserahmen und die Ergebnisse gut für eigene Bewertungen nutzen. Yves Bagna wurde von Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, Universität Bremen, während der Erstellung der Studie beraten. Die Studie wurde 2017 vom Forschungsinstitut der IWVWW e. V. in Berlin veröffentlicht und kann von dort bezogen werden. Ausführliche Kurzfassungen in Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch geben dem Leser einen kompakten Überblick.

Deutsche Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Deutsch)

L‘Afrique marché d’avenir: Quels sont les pays lucratifs pour des activités commerciales?

Yves Bagna présente une nouvelle étude sur les marchés d’avenir en Afrique et développe pour ce but un « Porter Competitiveness Index ». Dans ce livre riche en faits, des instruments théoriques remarquables sont employés dans le but de déterminer les pays attractifs en Afrique pour les petites et moyennes entreprises en Allemagne et dans les autres pays européens. Les entreprises qui veulent investir en Afrique ou qui cherchent des partenaires d’affaires sur place peuvent évidemment utiliser ce cadre analytique pour leurs propres estimations. Yves Bagna a été consulté pendant cette étude par le Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, de l’Université de Breme. L’étude a été publiée en 2017 par l’institut de recherche IWVWW e. V. de Berlin et peut donc être obtenue dans cette institution. Un résumé minutieux du contenu en allemand, en anglais et en français permet au lecteur d’avoir un aperçu succinct.

Französische Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Französisch)

Future Markets in Africa: Which countries are particularly interesting for initiating business?

Yves Bagna presents a new study on African future markets and develops a "Porter Competitiveness Index". In this fact-rich book, important theoretical approaches are used to make statements about the attractiveness of African countries to small and medium-sized German (and other European) companies. Companies wishing to invest in Africa or to establish a co-operation with a local partner can use the analysis framework and the results for their own evaluations. Yves Bagna was advised by Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, University of Bremen, during the elaboration of the study. The study was published in 2017 by the Forschungsinstitut of the IWVWW e. V. in Berlin and can be obtained from there. Detailed abstracts in German, English, and French give the reader a compact overview.

Englische Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Englisch)

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16.12.2016
Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien

Die drei Entwicklungsökonomen Hans-Heinrich Bass (Bremen), Robert Kappel (Hamburg/Berlin) und Karl Wohlmuth (Bremen) haben im Auftrag der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Tunesien eine Studie zu den Ansatzpunkten einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien verfasst. Angesichts der wachsenden Arbeitslosigkeit und der Ineffektivität der nationalen Beschäftigungspolitik in Tunesien sind Impulse für eine Neuorientierung in der derzeitigen Entwicklungsphase des Landes besonders wichtig (vgl. dazu die Links zur FES Tunesien: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf und zur digitalen Bibliothek der FES: http://www.fes.de/cgi-bin/gbv.cgi?id=12921&ty=pdf ).

Aus der Studie zitiert:

„Wirtschaftliche Probleme und soziale Ungerechtigkeiten lösten im Jahr 2011 die Revolution in Tunesien aus. Seither hat sich viel in Tunesien getan; die demokratische Entwicklung des Landes wird international gelobt. Doch wirtschaftliche Reformen wurden bislang kaum unternommen. Insbesondere junge Tunesier_innen und Bewohner_innen des Landesinneren warten noch immer auf eine wirtschaftliche und soziale »Dividende« der Revolution. Ohne neue Impulse in der Beschäftigungspolitik gerät der politische Prozess in Tunesien in Gefahr.

Die beste Form, um langfristige soziale Gerechtigkeit und gesellschaftliche Stabilität zu erreichen, ist durch gute, würdige und fair entlohnte Arbeit. In Tunesien herrscht jedoch schon seit langem Unterbeschäftigung und der Anteil prekärer Jobs nimmt rasch zu. Viele Hochschul- und Berufsschulabsolvent_innen finden keine adäquaten Jobs, wohingegen viele andere im stetig wachsenden informellen Sektor tätig sind. Aus diesem Grund braucht Tunesien dringend eine neue Industriepolitik und eine umfassende Beschäftigungsstrategie.

Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise Tunesiens sind möglich. Eine effektive Beschäftigungspolitik setzt jedoch die Stärkung des Unternehmenssektors voraus, insbesondere durch die Förderung kleinerer und mittlerer Unternehmen. Darüber hinaus sind neue Formen der Integration der tunesischen Wirtschaft in regionale und globale Wertschöpfungsketten durchzusetzen. Nur durch eine breit angelegte Reindustrialisierung können die nötigen Jobs geschaffen und nachhaltig gesichert werden.“

Erstens werden in der Studie Grundlagen einer kohärenten, inklusiven und nachhaltigen Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik für Tunesien vorgestellt. Dabei kommen der Privatsektor-Entwicklung und dem inklusiven Wachstum besondere Bedeutung zu. Die Dynamik in urbanen Zentren ist für die Beschäftigungsschaffung und für ein inklusives Wachstum stärker zu nutzen. Eine neue Industriepolitik kann inklusives Wachstum und Beschäftigungsschaffung unterstützen. Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen müssen anders als bisher offensiv gefördert werden.

Zweitens legt die Studie dar, dass die Integration Tunesiens in globale und regionale Wertschöpfungsketten durch wirtschafts- und handelspolitische Maßnahmen deutlich verbessert werden kann. Ein großes Beschäftigungspotential einer vertieften Integration ist erkennbar. Allerdings sind industriepolitische Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche globale und regionale Integration erst noch zu schaffen. Die einseitige und enge Konzentration in sektoraler und geographischer Hinsicht ist zu überwinden.

Drittens zeigt die Studie, dass Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise möglich sind, wenn durch eine nationale Beschäftigungsstrategie die fehlende Dynamik der Arbeitsmärkte korrigiert wird. Aber auch ein neues Management der De-Industrialisierung ist notwendig, weil in den letzten Jahren viele Jobs im Sektor der verarbeitenden Industrie verloren gegangen sind. Die Beschäftigungskrise kann überwunden werden, wenn eine neue Industriepolitik die Möglichkeiten der Reindustrialisierung ausschöpft. Die Beschäftigungsschaffung in Tunesien kann durch vier Pfade der Reindustrialisierung voran gebracht werden. Schließlich sind aber Ausrichtung und Umsetzung der Beschäftigungsstrategie als gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgabe zu verstehen; alle Stakeholder des Beschäftigungssystems müssen beteiligt werden, um einen Erfolg zu ermöglichen.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bibliographische Angaben zur Studie:

Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016, ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1 http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung/FES International Naher/Mittlerer Osten Nordafrika: https://www.fes.de/international/nahost/inhalt/publ_tunis.php

Die Studie wird derzeit ins Französische und ins Arabische übersetzt.

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14.12.2016
New Research Report on Employment Policies in Tunisia: Managing Deindustrialization and Initiating Reindustrialization
In a new Research Report Professor Karl Wohlmuth outlines Elements of a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia. The Report is a Background Paper for a Consultancy Study on Approaches to initiate a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia.

Tunisia is five years after the Arab Spring Revolution in the process of reforming its development model and especially so its employment policy and the related institutions. High overall unemployment rates and high unemployment rates among the graduates of tertiary and vocational education institutions reveal that the economy is not absorbing adequately its skilled labour force. In demand  is in Tunisia unskilled labour and low skilled labour as these groups of the labour force have much smaller unemployment rates. The production system is since decades biased towards sectors, activities and processes which require low skilled and cheap labour. The reasons are that Tunisia has managed rather badly its deindustrialization process, the decline of the manufacturing share in GDP and the decline of the manufacturing share in overall employment. Improving the management of deindustrialization would require that the labour market and investment laws and regulations are adapted, that the STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) system is adjusted, that the tertiary and vocational education systems are reformed, and that the social security system is streamlined.

 

 Source: North Country Public Radio/ northcountrypublicradio.org (Arab Spring Anniversary)

Intentions to reform the development model and its institutions are there, but the political process prevents concrete actions. Also, in order to increase the demand for skilled people who are unemployed or working under precarious conditions, the country needs to initiate a reindustrialization process. In the Research Report four paths of reindustrialization are discussed and contrasted: First, reindustrialization via the promotion of competitive value chains in other economic sectors than manufacturing (agriculture, services, mining, etc.) is a promising route which could create a great number of jobs. Obviously, the sector policies are not employment-promoting. Second, reindustrialization via exploiting the potential for manufacturing in remote regions of the country (as manufacturing is largely concentrated in some coastal regions) is another viable option. Regional development incentives have obviously not worked towards creating employment in manufacturing sectors through a new inter-regional division of labour. Third, reindustrialization via new forms of integration into global value chains is a further important option. Tunisia has a large number of scientists and researchers and around 700 science, research & development institutions, but does not exploit this potential for global value chains which put to use the skills base and the research potential of the country. Fourth, Tunisia has great opportunities to reindustrialize via the development of “green growth industries” as the protection of its natural resources is important for sustainable development. In various environment-sensitive sectors employment can be generated through “green growth initiatives”. Examples are areas such as organic agriculture, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, sustainable construction, and a better management of solid waste. All these areas offer a lot of opportunities up to new value chains and an increase in the demand for skills.

The Research Report is a Background Study, being part of a Joint Consultancy Contract. It is expected that short and long versions of the study can be published soon. The study relates also to the ongoing work on economic reforms in Tunisia by Karl Wohlmuth (see Publications Wohlmuth and STI Policies Tunisia: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ ).

Reference to the Study:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Orientations for a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Teil 1 (Part 1): Management von De-Industrialisierung und Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung (Management of Deindustrialization and Initiation of Policies at Reindustrialization), Forschungsbericht im Ökonomische Reformen in Tunesien-Projekt (Research Report in the Project Economic Reforms in Tunisia), diverse Lang- und Kurzfassungen des Forschungsberichts werden veröffentlicht (various long and short versions of the Research Report will be published soon), Manuskript (Manuscript), 45 Seiten (pages), unveröffentlichter Text (unpublished text), erscheint im Dezember 2016 als Nummer 127 der Blauen Discussion Papers Reihe des IWIM der Universität Bremen (forthcoming as Number 127 of the Blue Series Discussion Papers, IWIM, University of Bremen, 45 pages,  December 2016), unter dem Titel/under the title: Das Management der De-Industrialisierung und die Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (The Management of De-Industrialization and the Initiation of Policies for Reindustrialization. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia).

Link zu den Publikationen/ Link to the Publications (vgl./see: Publications Wohlmuth) und/and Link zum Tunesien-Projekt/ Link to the Tunisia Project (vgl./see: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ )

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