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Seite 6 von 26<<<3456789>>>
Die wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven der Ukraine nach dem Assoziierungsabkommen mit der EU:
Eine Konferenz des IWIM unter Beteiligung von Ökonomen der Kiewer Nationalen Wirtschaftsuniversität

Am 23. März 2015 fand am Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften der Universität Bremen eine Konferenz über die Wirtschaftsprobleme der Ukraine statt. Die Konferenz wurde vom Ko-Direktor des IWIM, Prof. Dr. Axel Sell, organisiert und vom Verein zur Förderung des Fachbereichs Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Bremen wiwib e. V. finanziell unterstützt. Professor Sell führte in die Thematik der Konferenz ein und erläuterte das Programm (vgl. den Abschlussbericht von Professor Sell zur Konferenz). Professor Dr. Oleksandr Sushchenko, Vizepräsident der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU) und Professor Dr. Oleksandr Dyma, Vizedekan der Faculty of Human Resource Management and Marketing der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU), erläuterten in ihren Vorträgen die gegenwärtige Lage und die anstehenden Reformen. Dr. Stefan Barenberg, Doktorand am IWIM, ging auf die Reformen im Bereich Corporate Governance ein. Frau Professor Dr. Jutta Günther und Maria Kristalowa vom IINO erläuterten die besondere Situation der Ukraine in Bezug auf die Auslandsinvestitionen. Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth ging auf die Prioritäten bei den Wirtschaftsreformen und auf ein Strategiekonzept für die Vollendung der Transformation in der Ukraine ein (vgl. die Kurzdarstellung und die PDF von Professor Wohlmuth zu den Reformprioritäten und den Strategieansätzen für die Ukraine). Frau Katerina Bosko von der Forschungsstelle Osteuropa der Universität Bremen leitete die Abschlussdiskussion.

Frau Katerina Bosko von der Forschungsstelle Osteuropa leitet die Abschlussdiskussion zur Ukraine-Konferenz

Die Kooperation mit der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU) wird von Professor Sell und vom Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft weiter vertieft werden. Die Ergebnisse der Konferenz zeigen, dass die Ukraine vor großen Herausforderungen steht und die notwendigen und weithin bekannten Reformen endlich umsetzen muss. Insbesondere in allen Bereichen der Governance sind Reformen notwendig, um die Strukturtransformation in der Ukraine erfolgreich voranzubringen und Kurs auf Europa zu nehmen. Das Abkommen Minsk II bietet nun wieder die Chance, in der Ukraine jene Weichenstellungen zu treffen, die eine Vollendung der Transformation und ein erfolgreiches Andocken an die europäische Wirtschaftsdynamik ermöglichen.

 

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Agro-industrial Development in Nigeria: New Publications by IWIM's Guest Professor Reuben A. Alabi

This is to inform the public about new researches done by Professor Reuben A. Alabi who is now for three years in Bremen at the Excellence University to do researches on "Waste Management Value Chains in Nigeria. Lessons from Germany and the Country State of Bremen".

The most recent study on agro-industrial development in Nigeria is “Economic Analysis of Effect of Flood on Income Distribution among Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Osasogie Daniel Izevbuwa from the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has contributed also to this study (see the PDF of the Journal Article and the Link to the study: http://ijraf.org/v2-i3.php ). What did the study reveal?:

The study estimated the effect of flood on the income distribution of the victims in Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample respondents for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information from the farmers. The data obtained were analysed econometrically. The income inequality increased among the victims due to the lopsidedness of the distribution of the compensation. For example, the study indicates that the middle income group lost 18% of their income during the flood and they got only 13% of the total compensation, whereas the richest income group lost 33% of their income and received 44% of the total compensation. Corruption and nepotism/tribalism have been implicated for the skewed distribution of the compensation among the victims.

In the prestigious International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington D.C. Professor Alabi and his research team have published the study: “Analysis of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Nigeria, Examination at the Federal, State, and local Government Levels”. The study was published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper 01395 in December 2014 by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (see the PDF of the IFPRI Study). The study comes out with important messages:

The level of public spending on agriculture in Nigeria remains low regardless of the indicator used. Agricultural spending as a share of total federal spending averaged 4.6 percent between 2008 and 2012 and has been trending downward precipitously. In contrast, Nigeria recorded an annual average agricultural growth rate of more than 6 percent between 2003 and 2010, and agricultural gross domestic product followed an increasing trend between 2008 and 2012. Budgetary allocation to agriculture compared with other key sectors is also low despite the sector's role in the fight against poverty, hunger, and unemployment and in the pursuit of economic development. To develop the agricultural sector, all tiers of government—federal, state, and local—should increase spending. The state and local governments should step up efforts to increase internally generated revenue so as to reduce overdependence on allocations from the federation account.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi is also contributing to Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with an Essay on The Role Of International Organisations In Promoting Agricultural Export Trade In Sub-Sahara Africa. This study is done in cooperation with Professor Kehinde Omotola Adejuwon, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study examines the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural exports in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA), with particular emphasis on IFAD, WTO, and especially the Aid For Trade (AFT) programmes. The study concentrates on four major export crops in SSA, such as cocoa, coffee, cashew and cotton. Professor Alabi is now cooperating since 2004 with the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project.

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Der lange Weg zu einem "neuen" Sudan: Die Erfurter Protokolle

Soeben ist die Dokumentation der Fachtagung zum Sudan an der Universität Erfurt in 2014 erschienen. In dieser Studie sind ausgewählte Beiträge der Fachtagung veröffentlicht worden, darunter der Beitrag von Professor Fouad Ibrahim, warum die Menschen in Darfur hungern, ein Beitrag von Ulrich Delius über die marginalisierten Regionen im Sudan, ein Beitrag von Philipp Rock über den deutschen Beitrag zur wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklung im Süd-Sudan und der Beitrag des Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessors und Sudanforschers Karl Wohlmuth zu den Programmen für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan. Insgesamt werden fünf zentrale Programmbereiche analysiert.

Wenn auch die Lage im Augenblick alles andere als nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen in den beiden Staaten erwarten lässt, ist es doch notwendig, immer wieder darauf hinzuweisen, dass eine friedvolle Zukunft in den beiden Staaten und zwischen den beiden Staaten nur dann denkbar ist, wenn die zentralen Wirtschafts- und Sozialreformen angegangen werden (diese Studie ist als PDF verfügbar). Wie der Bremer Professor zeigt, liegen zu allen zentralen Reformbereichen Vorschläge für beide Länder vor, doch gilt es, diese endlich umzusetzen.

 

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Technological Capabilities, Digital Production, and African Industrialisation

Technological Capabilities, Digital Production, and African Industrialisation: A New United Nations Industrial Development Study

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has just finalized a Background Study for a new UNIDO Project on Africa's Industrial Futures in the Digital Age. The Background Study is on the accumulation of technological capabilities (see for details the link to the Publications by Professor Karl Wohlmuth: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm ). The Economics Professor from Bremen analyses the possibilities to accumulate technological capabilities through digital media in African countries and especially so within African enterprises. The socio-economic context of the particular country and the particular firm plays a great role. The study first of all presents evidence about the technological heterogeneity in Africa, by looking at the most influential technological and ICT capability indicators. The accumulation of technological competences is imperative in order to include Africa into global digital manufacturing value chains. It can be supported also in Africa by specific policy measures, and by targeting structural and innovation policies accordingly. However, it is necessary to consider in the policy process the impact of the global techno-economic changes on the industrial structures, bottlenecks and opportunities in Africa. Decisive are the initial conditions in African formal and informal sector enterprises with regard of ICT competence and technological capabilities.

In order to accumulate technological capabilities within African enterprises and African industry systems, it is necessary to adapt the national and regional innovation systems accordingly. It is argued in the Background Study that it is possible to adapt the pillars of the national and regional innovation systems in African countries in such a way that economic incentives for the accumulation of technological capabilities can become stronger. In various case studies the Economics Professor shows that this is also possible in less developed African countries. An Agenda for Strengthening Technological Capabilities is presented in the Background Study.

Digital entrepreneurship, digital skills, and digital manufacturing play an increasing role in Africa, and networking within and between African countries and with the global ICT community facilitates the productive use of these new tools for manufacturing. New industrial development paths, along "remanufacturing", "green manufacturing" and informal sector manufacturing, benefit from processes of digitalisation and these offer new opportunities for African producers, also in terms of employment. New training and further education modules play a role in Africa and are already initiated by enterprises and training institutions. New developments in the innovation process, such as "open innovation", and new production modules, like 3D printing, give the manufacturing process in Africa already a new dimension.

A shorter version of this Background Study will be published in a United Nations book on Africa's Industrial Futures. In this book international experts present their findings on the perspectives of industrial production in Africa in the digital age. Chapters deal also with digitalisation trends and impacts on Africa, manufacturing trends and opportunities in Africa, global structural changes as affecting industrial production in Africa, energy scarcity and climate change as factors impacting on Africa's manufacturing production, and developments with regard of new competitive sectors in Africa. The Expert Group is finalising the report quite soon and will also present policy recommendations to national governments in Africa, UN bodies, donor agencies, and enterprises. Professor Wohlmuth is involved in the expert group as a Consultant and as a Lead Author. Professor Wohlmuth has in earlier work for UNIDO presented studies on the technological strengthening of agro-industrial sectors in Africa (see the Link: http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=1001692 ).

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Ein neues Forschungsprojekt (2015 - 2017) startet in Bremen unter der Leitung von Professor Reuben A. Alabi zum Thema:
"Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains"

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM's Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow, leitet von Januar 2015 bis Dezember 2017 das Forschungsprojekt "Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains". Der nigerianische Professor wird das international finanzierte Projekt an der Exzellenzuniversität Bremen durchführen. Erfahrungen mit den deutschen Wertschöpfungsketten im Bereich der Abfallwirtschaft sollen für die Umwelt- und Entwicklungspolitik in Nigeria nutzbar gemacht werden. Eine Kooperation mit deutschen und nigerianischen Unternehmen und zwischen deutschen und nigerianischen Universitäten ist im Projekt vorgesehen. Der nigerianische Professor wird in Bremen und in Nigeria regelmäßig über den Fortgang des Projektes in Seminaren und in Workshops berichten. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth ist als Konsulent und Senior Adviser im Projekt tätig. Die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen unterstützt das Forschungsvorhaben und wird in einer Ausgabe des "Jahrbuchs Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven" über die Forschungsergebnisse und deren Umsetzung in Nigeria berichten.

 

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A New Three Year (2015 - 2017) Research Project on Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria was launched in Bremen by Professor Reuben A. Alabi

A New Three Year (2015 - 2017) Research Project on Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria was launched in Bremen by Professor Reuben A. Alabi

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, an Associate Professor at the Department of Agricultural Economics of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria and a former Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at IWIM, is the director of a new research project for the coming years 2015-2017 on the theme "Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains". The Nigerian Professor has brought this internationally financed research project to the Excellence University of Bremen. Experiences with German value chains in waste management will be analysed and used for evidence-based reforms in Nigeria. A cooperation with German and Nigerian enterprises in the field of waste management is envisaged and also a cooperation between German and Nigerian universities and research institutes being active in the field. The Nigerian professor will also organize workshops in Bremen and in Nigeria to report on the research results and on the policy recommendations. Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior adviser in this project. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives supports the researches. It is envisaged to publish volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on the theme of "Energy and Sustainable Development in Africa" using also material from the research project.

 

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Fact Finding Mission to Tunis in November 2014 by Economists from Bremen

Fact Finding Mission (FFM) by Economists from Bremen to Tunis: Cooperation with ENIT University in Tunis and with leading STI Institutions in Tunisia Envisaged

A Fact Finding Mission (FFM) to Tunisia took place in November 2014 at the invitation of Professor Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Society for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation. Participants were three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also a young scientist from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) participated as a member of the team; he was responsible for drafting the detailed Minutes.

The Fact Finding Mission (FFM) gave the opportunity to study Tunisia’s National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions, and to meet ENIT university staff being responsible for new study and research programmes. There was also time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team, especially on the new study programme Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP). It was agreed to support the programme when it starts in September 2015 in Tunis, by Summer Courses, Scientific Conferences, and by specifically developed lecture modules on innovation policies. This first phase of the cooperation between Bremen and Tunis was financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, was the main applicant. Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a Seminar in Bremen on Bremen’s Regional Innovation System and a Science, Technology, Industry and Innovation (STII) Policy Research Conference in Tunis.

 

 

The Delegations from Bremen and Tunis during their Meetings

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia’s success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

Of great interest and importance for the two delegations was the meeting with ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa) staff in the African Development Bank Headquarters Building in Tunis. Representatives from ADEA, the University of Bremen, the University of Applied Sciences Bremen and from ENIT University discussed about ICT education and innovation policies in Africa, about the African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project, and about a cooperation between these institutions towards establishing the ETP programme at ENIT from September 2015 onwards (see the report by ADEA about the meeting: http://adeanet.org/portalv2/en/news/universities-bremen-and-tunis-el-manar-pay-visit-adea#.VKhq8clhLJk ). Various reports on the FFM to Tunis were published in Bremen in newspapers (see PDF) and also in online journals like The European (Web Access: http://www.theeuropean.de/hans-heinrich-bass/9297-tunesien-nach-den-praesidentschaftswahlen-hoffnung ). The two Universities in Bremen reported about the event in press releases (see for the Hochschule Bremen:  http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2014/detail/index_49269.html and for the University of Bremen: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/unterstuetzung-bremer-oekonomen-in-tunis-willkommen.html?cHash=755d38f765e079e8488fd03561fdf373 ). See also the Photo Gallery for the FFM to Tunis (Photo Gallery). The Minutes of the FFM to Tunis are now available and can be sent upon request to interested experts intending to cooperate with universities in Tunisia.

 

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Professor Karl Wohlmuth arbeitet an einer neuen UN-Studie über Afrikas Industrialisierungsprozesse im digitalen Zeitalter mit

Eine Expertengruppe der UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization)  in Wien arbeitet an einer internationalen Studie zu Afrikas Perspektiven der industriellen Entwicklung im digitalen Zeitalter. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth ist auch in der Expertengruppe aktiv und bearbeitet die Fragen der technologischen Herausforderungen einer industriellen Entwicklung in Afrika im Kontext digitaler Innovationsprozesse, digitaler Produktentwicklung und digitaler Produktion. Obwohl die diesbezüglichen Verhältnisse und Entwicklungspotentiale in den afrikanischen Ländern sehr unterschiedlich sind, wird dennoch versucht, einen angepassten Handlungsrahmen für Strukturtransformation und Industriepolitik im digitalen Zeitalter zu erarbeiten. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor arbeitet als Konsulent und Lead Author an dem UN-Projekt in Wien mit. Der Bremer Professor ist seit 2004 an Afrikaprojekten der UNIDO, der Organisation der Vereinten Nationen für industrielle Entwicklung, beteiligt (vgl. zu den UNIDO-Studien über Potentiale der agro-industriellen Entwicklung in Afrika seit 2008 unter Beteiligung von Professor Karl Wohlmuth den Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm ).

Im Rahmen einer im Dezember 2014 fertiggestellten Background Study (vgl. den Link zu Publikationen von Karl Wohlmuth: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm ) analysierte der Bremer Professor die Möglichkeiten, die Akkumulation von technologischen Fähigkeiten in Afrika durch digitale Medien zu beschleunigen. Ausgangspunkt war die Analyse der technologischen Heterogenität in Afrika, die sich in Bezug auf alle wichtigen Technology Capability Indicators zeigt.  Die technologischen Fähigkeiten zur digitalen industriellen Produktion können auch in Afrika durch struktur- und innovationspolitische Maßnahmen gestärkt werden, doch sind dabei die globalen techno-ökonomischen Veränderungen mit den vorhandenen technologischen Potentialen und den existierenden Innovationssystemen in Einklang zu bringen. Die digitalen Kompetenzen und die technologischen Fähigkeiten in afrikanischen Unternehmen können aber nur dann erweitert werden, wenn beim Aufbau nationaler und regionaler Innovationssysteme in Afrika Anpassungen an die veränderten Anforderungen erfolgen. Insbesondere können die verschiedenen Pole des nationalen Innovationssystems durch ökonomische Anreize besser vernetzt werden.

In mehreren Case Studies wird von Professor Wohlmuth aufgezeigt, dass dies durchaus auch in weniger entwickelten afrikanischen Ländern möglich ist. Eine Agenda für den Aufbau technologischer Kompetenzen im Kontext digitaler industrieller Produktion wird präsentiert. Auch auf neue Entwicklungen im Bereich von „open innovation“ und 3D printing wird eingegangen. Neue industrielle Entwicklungsmodelle, so etwa das Re-Manufacturing, das Green Manufacturing, die Digitalisierung des Informal Economy Manufacturing, und neue Aus- und Weiterbildungsmodelle, insbesondere für die industrielle Produktion im informellen Sektor, spielen dabei eine immer größere Rolle. Eine gekürzte Version dieser Studie wird in einer UNIDO-Buchpublikation erscheinen.

 

 

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Towards Sustainable Science, Technology, Industry, and Innovation (STII) Policies in Tunisia - A Cooperation between the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen and Tunisian Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Institutions

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia's success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

A Fact Finding Mission to Tunisia will take place in November 2014. Participants are three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also two young scientists from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) will participate as members of the team. The Fact Finding Mission will give the opportunity to study Tunisia's National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions. There will also be time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team. This first phase of the cooperation is financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen,  was the main applicant.  Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a STII Summer School in Bremen and a STII Research Conference in Tunis.

 

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"African Lions, African Tigers and Emerging African Middle Classes": A new Research Report

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen presents a new research report on the "Africa Rising Story" being so influential at the moment (see the New Research Report). The author is interested to have comments which can be used for a new draft as the research report will be published in various versions.

The "Africa Rising Story" is the theme of the paper. A lot of myths are prevalent on African growth and development, and the international consulting companies play a role in this. Some of these myths are discussed in this paper on the basis of readings of major international consultancy reports, like McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, Bain & Company, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, and many others. These international consultancy companies have a decisive influence on foreign investors in Africa, on multinationals doing business in Africa, but also on governments, on private local businesses in Africa, and, last but not least, also on donors who are engaged in Africa.

Some of these myths are discussed in this paper and confronted with facts and realities (Africa as a continent of top growers; Africa as a continent of booming economic sectors and of expanding consumer classes; Africa as a continent with an increasing number of globally competitive enterprises; Africa as a continent capturing the "demographic dividend" and the advantages of the "digital economy"; and Africa as a continent with an emerging middle class which is taking up developmental roles). Also the methodological frame of these international consultancy reports is considered. There is reference to the background and the motivation of these companies to write on Africa, to their methodologies and analytical approaches, to their functional importance for investors and governments, and to the spread of the messages all over Africa and throughout the development community.

The intention of the paper is it to provide a frame for a more critical assessment of such reports as they are circulated all over the world press and are written so as to influence not only investors but also key political decision-makers.

A further extension of this version of the research report is done by including more insights on the methodologies used by international consultancy companies in their reports on Africa. This extension of the report will then become published in the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers (see IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).

 

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